List entries alphabetically by last name.
If there is no author given, alphabetize the works by the title. Use a shortened version of the title.
To cite an author, use the last name followed by the first name and if given, the middle name of initial.
Last name, First name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
To cite two authors, use the last name followed by the first name and then inverse to first name and last name.
Last name, First name and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
If you are citing more than one author, separate the authors by commas alphabetically. The first author should have their last name, first name and the additional authors should be cited simply with their first and last name.
Last name, First name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
Contributor information (editor, compilers, and translators) are typically cited after the name of the source. Use “Ed.”, “Comp”, or “Trans.” to indicate what type of contributor you are citing.
Last name, First name. Source Title. Comp. First name Last name. City: Publisher, Year.
In MLA7, you must list the publication medium (print or web) after the publication information. MLA7 abbreviates all months except for May, June and July.
Last, First M. Title City: Publisher, Year Published. Medium
Last, First M. “Article.” Title Series Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page(s). Medium
Last, First M. “Article” Title Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Medium
Last, First M. “Article” Title [City] Date Month Year Published, Edition, Section: Page(s). Medium.
If you cannot find a place, publisher or date – use place holders “N.p., n.p., n.d.” which represents no place, no publisher, and no date.
No page number – If there are no page numbers use “N. pag.” Capitalize the abbreviations appropriately based on where they are placed.
Last, First M. Source Title N.p.: Publisher, Year. Medium
Last, First M. Source Title City: n.p., Year. Print
Last, First M. Source Title City: Publisher, n.d. Print.
Title. Dir. First M. Last. By First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last, First M. Last, and First M. Last. Distributor, Year Published. Media Type.
Of Mice and Men Dir. Gary Sinise. By John Steinbeck. Perf. John Malkovich, Gary Sinise and Ray Walston. Released by Contemporary Films/McGraw-Hill, 1992. Videocassette.
Artist Last, First M. “Track Name.” Recorded Month Date, Year. In Album Name By Writer First M. Last. Cond. Conductor First M. Last. Orch. First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last. Band/Group Name. Rec. Date Month Year. Producer First M. Last, Year. CD/MP3, MIDI, Cassette/Vinyl.
Lady Gaga Born This Way Rec. 2011. Vincent Herbert, 2011. CD.
Contributors. “Title.” Website. Edition. Website Publisher, Date. Web. Date Accessed.
Friedland, Lois. “Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips.” About.com New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
EasyBib.com ImagineEasy Solutions, n.d. Web. 8 May 2009.
Newspaper and magazine websites are considered non-periodical, directly published online sources even if they have in-print copies. Follow the published directly online format.
Chen, Stephanie. “Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison.” CNN.com Cable News Network, 7 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Shorto, Russell. “Going Dutch.” New York Times New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. “Miles that Blind: Commuter Marriage and Family Strength.” Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.
Last name, First name. Page Cited. Web. Date Accessed.
Smith, Steve. Home Page. Web. 3 January 2013.
Sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these sources as you would in their original form, and then add as much relevant web information as possible (website title, publisher / sponsor, date of electronic publication, medium, and date accessed).
Catton, Bruce. The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. Google Book Search. Web. 15 May 2008.
Puzzanchera, Charles. “Juvenile Arrests 2007.” Juvenile Justice Bulletin. (Apr.2009): n.pag. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 8 May 2009.
West, Kanye. Amazing. Prod. Hype Williams. Roc-A-Fella Records, 2009. Youtube Web. 8 Feb. 2009.
Picasso, Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921. ArtQuotes.net Web. 5 Apr. 2006.
Park, Obadiah. “Hey Ya.” N.d. TheSixtyOne.com Web. 10 Feb. 2007.
Bruce Springsteen. Digital Image. Google Images. LIFE. Web. 9 Oct. 2009. <http://images.google.com>.
Note: In the above example the title is not in quotes because it is a description of the digital image. The URL was truncated to the search URL because it was too long and complicated.
Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. “Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors for Data Mining.” Annals of Operations Research 263.1 (2008): 5-18. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
Sources found in online Databases typically have been published elsewhere. Include as much as the original publication information as possible, and then add the Database name, medium (web), and the date accessed.
View our visual citation guide on the Fundamentals of MLA Format.
View our visual citation guide on the Web Rules of MLA Format
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View our visual citation guide on how to cite a General in MLA format.