MLA Citation Examples

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Welcome to the EasyBib MLA Citation Guide! If you’ve landed on this page, you’re probably wondering what MLA citing is, or perhaps you need help creating an MLA citation or two. This page is fully stocked with the information you need to be an MLA citing machine.

While EasyBib isn’t officially affiliated with the Modern Language Association, we’ve included page numbers throughout this guide to demonstrate that the information on this page reflects the content from the official Handbook. Click here to learn more about the 9th edition of the handbook.

If you’re wondering, “What is MLA?” and in need of some background information on the organization, take a peek at the Modern Language Association’s site. You’ll find tons of handy information related to referencing and writing mechanics. We’ll cover:


What’s an MLA citation?

Anytime a piece of information from another source is added into your MLA style paper, you must create two citations, or references, to show the reader where the information originated. One reference is placed in the written text of the paper, and the other is placed at the end of the project.

The reference that is placed in the written text of the paper, called an in-text citation, comes immediately next to any borrowed information. It provides a glimpse for the reader to see who the original author is and where the information was found.

Here’s an MLA example:

Lark knows how to handle life on the river. “I try to count the seconds before I hear the thunder, so I know how far the storm is, but I’m too rattled” (Wingate 12).

Check out the full EasyBib MLA in-text & parenthetical citations guide to learn more about styling these types of references.

The other type of reference, which we’ll call a full reference, is placed at the end of the project. It includes enough information about the source so the reader can locate the source themselves, if they choose to do so, whether online or at their library.

Here’s the full reference, which corresponds to the in-text citation above:

Wingate, Lisa. Before We Were Yours. Random House, 2017.

Notice that the beginning of the reference in the text, Wingate, corresponds with the first word in the full reference. This is very important! It allows for the reader to find the full reference on the MLA works cited page.

Wondering if you can create MLA footnotes instead? You sure can! However, in this style, it’s more common to use references in the text of your paper.

If it’s help with an APA in-text citation or APA parenthetical citation you’re after, you’re in luck! Our comprehensive guides are here for you!


Various types of styles

There are many different ways to style references, and following MLA’s guidelines are just one way to do so. Two other well-known and popular styles to structure references include APA and Chicago.

Your teacher probably told you which style to create your references in. If you were told to use a different style, such as APA or Chicago, here are some links to help you get started.

The EasyBib APA citations guide has everything you need to learn how to create references in this style. Or, if you’re looking for help with structuring the paper itself (spacing, font, margins, etc.), check out the EasyBib APA format page. If you need help with more styles, EasyBib always has your back, with thousands of styles available!


A Standard Formula

The great thing about MLA citations is that full references follow one standard formula. So, it doesn’t matter if you’re attempting to reference a book, newspaper article, or Facebook post, as almost every source type is structured the same way, following an MLA template.

Here’s a step-by-step guide that gives you the key to the secret sauce:


1. Who created the source?

Is your source written or created by an individual? If yes, place their name in reverse order, with a period at the end, like this:

Jackson, Michael.

If there are multiple individuals responsible for the work, place them in the order they’re shown on the source

Two Authors:

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.

Owens, Michael, and Scott Abrahams.

Three or More Authors:

According to page 112 of the Handbook, only include the first listed author’s name, in reverse order, followed by a comma, and omit all other names. Replace the additional names with the Latin phrase, et al.

Last Name, First Name, et al.

Preston, Rebekah, et al.

Organization authors:

If an organization is responsible for the work, you may include the organization’s name. However, in many cases, an organization is listed as BOTH the author and publisher. When this is the case, you can leave the author out, start the citation with the source’s title, and include the organization name only as the publisher.

Dinosaur Facts. American Museum of Natural History, www.amnh.org/dinosaurs/dinosaur-facts.


2. What’s the title?

Sometimes there are two titles related to your source, and sometimes there’s only one.

If the source you’re referencing has two title parts, place the smaller part in quotation marks, followed by a period, and the larger part in italics, followed by a comma.

Think about the song, “Beat It,” by Michael Jackson. “Beat It” is the title of the song, but there’s another title too. The title of the album! The title of the album is Thriller.

Here’s how the two titles would be structured:

“Beat It.” Thriller,

The album, Thriller, serves as the “container” for the song itself.

The term “container” is used extensively throughout the official guide. In addition to songs and albums, other types of titles and their containers can include:

  • “Web Page Articles.” Websites,
  • “Book Chapters.” Titles of Books,
  • “Journal Articles.” Titles of Journals,

…plus many more!

To make things even more interesting, there are times when there’s more than one container! Think about an episode of a television show. The television series is the first container, but if you watched it on a streaming site, the streaming site would be the second container.

If there are two containers, the second one is added at the end of the reference.

“The Miseducation of Lisa Simpson.” Performances by John Legend, Chrissy Teigen, and Zach Woods. The Simpsons, season 31, episode 12, Fox Broadcasting, 16 Feb. 2020. Hulu, www.hulu.com/simpsons/miseducation.

Let’s break that down:

  • Title: “The Miseducation of Lisa Simpson.”
    • Container 1: The Simpsons
      • Container 2: Hulu

There are times when two titles aren’t included in a reference. If, instead of referencing the song “Beat It,” you’re referencing the entire album, exclude the quotation marks. Only include the one title and place it in italics, without quotation marks.

Here’s how you would reference the entire album, rather than one song on the album:

Jackson, Michael. Thriller. Produced by Quincy Jones, Westlake Recording Studios, 1982.

For more on titles and containers, head to pages 134-145 of the official Handbook.

If you decide to use EasyBibs citation generator MLA creator, we’ll help you structure the titles and containers in just a few clicks!


3. Any other contributors?

If there are any other people, besides the author, who had a significant role, and you feel it would be helpful to include their name in the reference, this information is added after the title. Include their role and name in standard order, followed by a comma.

Produced by Quincy Jones,

For other types of sources, there may be other roles and individuals to highlight. Here are a few examples:

  • Performance by Sid Caesar,
  • Translated by Sarah Martin,
  • Narrated by Rita Williams-Garcia,

4. Are you referencing a specific version?

Perhaps there is a specific edition of a book, song version, or movie cut. Include this information next, followed by a comma.

Google Play Exclusive Edition,

Other examples could include:

  1. 2nd ed.,
  2. Director’s cut,
  3. Unedited ed.,
  4. Instrumental version,

5. Got numbers?

Any numbers associated with the source, such as a volume and issue number, or episode number, are added next, followed by a comma.

For example, many journal articles have volume and issue numbers. Use vol. before the volume number and no. before the issue number.

vol. 2, no. 3,

Wondering what to exclude from your citations MLA paper? ISBN numbers! They’re never added into references.


6. Who published the source?

This information is added next in the reference, followed by a comma. Since the publisher listed is usually the formal name of a company or organization, use title case.

Epic,

Random House,

Marvel Studios,


7. When was it published?

The date the source was published comes next, followed by a comma.

1982,

In the official Handbook, the references are displayed as Day Month Year. If the month is longer than 4 letters, abbreviate it.

4 Nov. 2019,

28 July 2015,

If you can’t find the source date, simply leave it out. Note: Some teachers want students to make a source with “no date” as “n.d.” If you’re unsure what your teacher wants, check in with them.


8. Where can you find the source?

The final component of the formula is the location.

  • If the source was found online, this should be a website address. Make sure to omit https:// from the front of the string.
  • It can be an actual location too, if the source is something you saw in a museum or elsewhere in real life.
  • Or, it can also be a page number or page range.
  • Always close out the reference with a period.

Now, let’s put all of the pieces together. Here’s what we come up with for our MLA citation example:

Jackson, Michael. “Beat It.” Thriller, produced by Quincy Jones, Google Play Exclusive Edition, Epic, 1982, play.google.com/store/music/album/Thriller?id=Bzs3hkvcyvinz5tkilucmmoqjhi&hl=en_US.


Example breakdown:

1. Who created the source? Jackson, Michael.
2. What’s the title? “Beat It.” Thriller,
3. Any other contributors? produced by Quincy Jones,
4. Got numbers or editions? Google Play Exclusive Edition,
5. Who published the source? Epic,
6. When was it published? 1982,
7. Where can you find the source? play.google.com/store/music/album/Thriller?id=Bzs3hkvcyvinz5tkilucmmoqjhi&hl=en_US.

Some things to keep in mind:

1. It’s not necessary to include every piece to the puzzle. Only include the information that the reader would need in order to successfully locate the source themselves.

For example, in the Thriller example above, you’ll see there aren’t any specific numbers (besides the publication date) in the reference. Why? There aren’t any numbers associated with the source.

2. If you’re looking for help, the EasyBib MLA citation creator helps you develop your references. Give it a whirl! It’s free and easy to use! Nervous to try it out? Here’s a quick rundown on how to use it.


Using the EasyBib MLA Citation Generator

Reserve the precious time you have for researching and writing, rather than wrapping your head around MLA guidelines, rules, and structures. The EasyBib citing tool is here to help you easily create citations for all your papers and turn you into a citing, MLA machine!

Follow these steps:

  1. Find your source. We have over 50 types of sources to choose from.
  2. You’ll be directed to one of two types of forms:
    • Our automatic generator (shown below) creates references using source data already available on the Internet. Simply type in a few key pieces of information about the source and click “Search.”
    • Our manual form creates your references based on the information you enter. Fill out the form and click “Complete Citation.”
  3. The easy-to-follow directions guide you through the remainder of the process. Follow the steps on the screen and watch the magic happen in a few clicks and keystrokes!
  4. Copy and paste your completed reference into your project or export it to your document.

The EasyBib MLA format generator isn’t all that’s available. There are also tons of other nifty features, all available on our homepage, including an MLA title page maker and an innovative plagiarism checker! That’s not all, there are many other thorough guides to help you with your referencing needs. Check out the EasyBib APA reference page, plus many more!


MLA Citation Examples

MLA citing is easier when you have visuals and examples to take a peek at. That’s why we’ve put together a list of the most common source types that students and scholars reference. If you’re trying to reference a book, newspaper article, website, or tweet, you’ll find the structures you need to get on the right track.

Pro tip: Don’t leave your references for the last minute! In your MLA outline or notes, keep track of the sources you use. This will help make the entire process easier for you!

Below are examples for these sources:

  1. Print book
  2. Edited book
  3. Chapter in an edited book
  4. E-book from the Internet
  5. Website
  6. Online journal article
  7. Print journal article
  8. Online magazine
  9. Print magazine
  10. Online newspaper
  11. Print newspaper
  12. Online image
  13. Print image
  14. Images viewed in real life
  15. Online video
  16. Streamed show
  17. Streamed music
  18. Sheet music
  19. Social media examples

 


PRINT BOOK


Full reference structure:

 

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Publisher, Year published.

 

Example:

 

Baron, Dennis. What’s Your Pronoun? Beyond He & She. Liveright, 2020.

 

In-text structures:

 

Author’s Last Name…(page number).

 

(Author’s Last Name page number).

 

Example:

 

Baron…(82).

 

(Baron 82).

 

If, instead, you need help with referencing an APA book citation, the linked guide walks you through the process!


EDITED BOOK


This information is located on page 112-113 of the official Handbook.

Full reference structure:

 

Editor’s Last Name, First Name, editor. Title of Book. Ed., Publisher, year published.

 

Example:

Bausch, Richard, and R. V. Cassill, editors. The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. 8th ed., W.W. Norton, 2015.

 

In-text structures:

 

Editor’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Editor’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Bausch and Cassill…(144)

 

(Bausch and Cassill 144)

 

 


CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK


Full reference structure:

 

Chapter Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by First Name Last Name, ed., Publisher, year published, page range.

 

Example:

 

 

Woolf, Virginia. “Kew Gardens.” The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction, edited by Richard Bausch and R. V. Cassill, 8th ed., W.W. Norton, 2015, pp. 43-62.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Chapter Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Chapter Author’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Woolf…(57).

 

(Woolf 57)

 

 


E-BOOK FROM THE INTERNET


Full reference structure:

 

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of E-book. Publisher, year published. Title of Website, web address.

 

Example:

 

 

London, Jack. The Sea-Wolf. Grosset & Dunlap, 1904, ia802701.us.archive.org/27/items/seawolfby00londrich
/seawolfby00londrich.pdf.

In-text structures:

 

 

E-book Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(E-book Author’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

London…(70).

 

(London 70)

 

 

If you’re attempting to reference an e-book from an e-reader, such as a Nook or Kindle, use the EasyBib MLA citation generator. We’ll help you structure your e-book references in no time!

 


WEBSITE


Full reference structure:

 

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website, Website publisher (if different from website name), date published, URL.

 

Example:

 

Sabat, Yaika. “Puerto Rican Writers, Poets, and Essayists.” BookRiot, Riot New Media Group, 22 Nov. 2017, bookriot.com/puerto-rican-writers/.

 

In-text structures:

 

Web Page Author’s Last Name…

 

(Web Page Author’s Last Name)

 

Example:

 

Sabat…

 

(Sabat)

 

If you need more information on how to cite websites in MLA, check out the full-length EasyBib guide! Or, take the guesswork out of forming your references and try the EasyBib automatic MLA citation machine!

Need an APA citation website or help with another popular referencing style? EasyBib Plus may be exactly what you need.


ONLINE JOURNAL ARTICLE


Full reference structure:

 

Article Author’s Last Name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. number, issue no., date published, page range. Title of Website, DOI or URL.

 

Example:

 

 

 

 

Ioannidou, Elena, et al. “Greek in Enclave Communities: Language Maintenance of the Varieties of Cypriot Romeika in Cyprus and Cretan Greek in Cunda, Turkey.” Mediterranean Language Review, vol. 26, 2019, pp. 157-186. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.13173/medilangrevi.26.2019.0157.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Online Journal Article Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Online Journal Article’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Ioannidou et al.…(164).

 

(Ioannidou et al. 164)

 

To see an online journal example in action, check out the EasyBib MLA sample paper, which is discussed at the bottom of this guide. Also, don’t forget about the easy-to-use, EasyBib automatic generator. Stop typing into Google “citation maker MLA” and go to EasyBib.com instead!

 


PRINT JOURNAL ARTICLE


Full reference structure:

 

Article Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. number, issue no., date published, page range.

 

Example:

 

 

Brundan, Katy. “What We Can Learn From the Philologist in Fiction.” Criticism, vol. 61, no. 3, summer 2019, pp. 285-310.

 

In-text structures:

 

Print Journal Article Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Print Journal Article Author’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Brundan…(303)

 

(Brundan 303)

 

If it’s referencing an APA journal you’re after, click on the link for the informative EasyBib guide on the topic.

If you’re looking for an MLA citation maker to help you build your bibliography, try out the EasyBib MLA generator. Type in a few key pieces of information about your source and watch the magic happen!

 


ONLINE MAGAZINE


Full reference structure:

 

 

Article Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Magazine Article.” Title of Magazine, vol. number, issue no., date published, page range. Title of Website, website address.

 

Example:

 

 

 

Natarajan, R. “Preparing for Education 4.0.” Education World, vol. 21, no. 1, Jan. 2020, p. 40. EZineMart, www.ezinemart.com/educationworld/index.php?pagedate=01012020#.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Online Magazine Article Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

 

(Online Magazine Article Author’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

 Natarajan…

 

(Natarajan)*

 

*In the above example, Natarajan’s article only sits on one page, so it’s unnecessary to include the page number in the reference in the text.


PRINT MAGAZINE


Full reference structure:

 

 

Article Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Print Magazine Article.” Title of Print Magazine, vol. number, issue no., date published, page range.

 

Example:

 

 

Seymour, Gene. “Henry James and Pigs’ Feet: Ralph Ellison’s Letters Fulfill His Great First Novel’s Promise.” Bookforum, vol. 26, no. 5, Feb/Mar. 2020, pp. 14-15.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Print Magazine Article Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Print Magazine Article’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Seymour…(14)

 

(Seymour 14)

 

Print magazines are always fun to read, but know what else is a party? Brushing up on your grammar skills! Check out the thorough EasyBib grammar guides on adverb, determiner, and preposition pages!


ONLINE NEWSPAPER


Full reference structure:

 

Article Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Online Newspaper Article.” Title of Newspaper [City]*, date published, section name (if applicable), page range. Title of Website, URL.

 

Example:

 

 

 

Berthiaume, Lee. “Backlog of Applications for Vets’ Benefits Grows By The Thousands.” Toronto Star, 11 Feb. 2020, A9. PressReader, www-pressreader-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/canada/toronto-star/20200211.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Online Newspaper Article Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Online Newspaper Article Author’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Berthiaume…

 

(Berthiaume)**

 

*You do not need to include the city name in your citation if the city name is in the name of the newspaper or if it is a national or international newspaper.

**Since the above article is only on one page, it’s not necessary to include the page number in the text reference of your MLA style citation.

Need help? Use the EasyBib MLA citation machine, which guides you through the process of making newspaper references! Quit searching on Google for “how to MLA citation” and visit  EasyBib.com today!


PRINT NEWSPAPER


Full reference structure:

 

Article Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Print Newspaper Article.” Title of Newspaper [City],* date published, section name (if applicable), page range.

 

Example:

 

Larry, Gordon. “Sending Mom and Dad Off to College for the Day.” Los Angeles Times, 11 Feb. 2020, pp. B1-B2.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Print Newspaper Article Author’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Print Newspaper Article Author’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Gordon…(B1)

 

(Gordon B1)

 

*You do not need to include the city name in your citation if the city name is in the name of the newspaper or if it is a national or international newspaper.

If your periodical article falls on nonconsecutive page numbers, add a plus sign after the first page number and omit the additional pages from any full references. Example: pp. B1+ (This information is located on page 193 in the official Handbook). Don’t forget, the EasyBib citation machine MLA creator can help you structure all your citation information!


ONLINE IMAGE


Full reference structure:

 

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Artwork or Image.” Title of Website, date published (if available), URL.

 

Example:

 

 

Chapman, C. T. “Miss Jeannette Rankin, of Montana, Speaking from the Balcony of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, Monday, April 2, 1917.” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov/item/mnwp000156/.

 

In-text structures:

 

Online Image Artist’s Last Name

 

(Online Image Artist’s Last Name)

 

Example:

 

Chapman…

 

(Chapman)

 

If you’re still confused about referencing online images, give the EasyBib MLA format generator a whirl. In just a few clicks, you’ll have well-structured MLA citations!


PRINT IMAGE


If you’re looking to reference an image seen in a print book, use the structure below. Or, use the “Cartoon,” “Photo,” “Painting,” or “Map” forms found on the EasyBib MLA generator for citations.

Full reference structure:

 

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Artwork or Image. Year created. Title of Container, additional contributors (if applicable), Publisher, date published, page(s).

 

Example:

 

 

Bentley, W. A. Snow Crystals. 1922. Snowflakes in Photographs, Courier Corporation, 2012, pp. 1-67.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Artist’s Last Name…(page number)

 

(Artist’s Last Name page number)

 

Example:

 

Bentley…(13)

 

(Bentley 13)

 

In need of a citation machine MLA maker to help save some of your precious time? Try EasyBib’s generator. Head to the EasyBib homepage and start developing your references today!


IMAGE VIEWED IN REAL LIFE


If you viewed an image in real life, whether at a museum, on display in a building, or even on a billboard, this EasyBib MLA citation guide example includes the most common way to reference it.

Full reference structure:

 

Artist’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Artwork or Image. Date created, Museum or Building, Location.

 

Example:

 

 

Turner, Joseph Mallord William. Antwerp: Van Goyen Looking Out for a Subject. 1833, The Frick Collection, New York.

 

In-text structures:

 

Artist’s Last Name….

 

(Artist’s Last Name)

 

Example:

 

Turner….

 

(Turner)

 

 


ONLINE VIDEO


For the majority of online video references, the reference should start with the title of the video. The information about the account that uploaded the video should be included in the “Other Contributors” space.

Full reference structure:

 

“Title of the Online Video.” Title of Website, uploaded by Username, date uploaded, URL.

 

Example:

 

 

“Jimmy and Kevin Hart Ride a Roller Coaster.” YouTube, uploaded by The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, 18 June 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPdbdjctx2I.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

“Title of Online Video”…(time stamp)

 

(“Abbreviated Title of Online Video” time stamp)

 

Example:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Jimmy and Kevin Hart Ride a Roller Coaster”…(00.02.17)

 

After the first in-text reference, it’s acceptable to shorten the title when referencing again

“Jimmy and Kevin Hart”…(00.03.11)

 

 

 

(“Jimmy and Kevin Hart” 00.02.17)

 

The title should always be shortened to the first noun phrase in parenthetical citations when possible.

 

For more on learning how to cite MLA timestamps, turn to page 250 in the official Handbook.

It’s common to see online videos featured in an annotated bibliography. Have a look at the useful guide to learn how to create one from scratch!


STREAMED SHOW


Streamed shows (sometimes called online or streamed “television shows”) are watched using a service such as Netflix, Hulu, Disney+, or another subscription streaming site.

Full reference structure:

 

 

“Title of Episode.” Title of Series, contributor names (if applicable), season number, episode number, Publisher/Network name, date aired or published. Streaming Service, URL.

 

Example:

 

 

“Chapter 2: The Child.” The Mandalorian, season 1, episode 2, Disney Media Distribution, 15 Nov. 2019. Disney+, www.disneyplus.com/mandalorian/thechild.

 

In-text structures:

 

“Title of Episode”…

 

(“Shortened Title of Episode”)

 

Example:

 

“Chapter 2: The Child”…(00.23.13)

 

(“Chapter 2” 00.23.13)

 

 

If you accessed a streamed show through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[Name of Service] app” instead of including the URL.

 

Full reference structure:

 

 

 

“Title of Episode.” Title of Series, contributor names (if applicable), season number, episode number, Publisher/Network name, date aired or published. Streaming Service app.

 

Example:

 

 

“Chapter 2: The Child.” The Mandalorian, season 1, episode 2, Disney Media Distribution, 15 Nov. 2019. Disney+ app.

 

After you’re through binging on your favorite shows, give yourself some brain fuel by taking a glance at the EasyBib grammar guides. Take your writing up a notch with the guides on interjection, conjunction, and verb pages!


STREAMED MUSIC


Full reference structure:

 

Singer’s Last Name, First Name OR Stage Name/Name of Musical Group. “Title of Song.” Title of Album, edition if applicable, Publisher, year of publication. Title of Streaming Music Website, web address.*

 

Example:

 

Post Malone. “Better Now.” Beerbongs & Bentleys, Republic Records, 2018. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/7dt6x5M1jzdTEt8oCbisTK.

 

In-text structures:

 

 

Singer’s Last Name or Group Name

 

(Singer’s Last Name or Group)

 

Example:

 

Post Malone….

 

(Post Malone)

 

*If you accessed a streamed song through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[Name of Service] app” instead of including the URL.

Streamed music can be tricky to reference, especially with the wide variety of streaming services available on the web and through apps. Don’t worry, the EasyBib MLA citation maker can come in and save the day for you. Try it out now! To make it even easier, bookmark the EasyBib citation machine MLA maker for quick access!


SHEET MUSIC


Full reference structure:

 

Composer’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Musical Piece. Date of original composition.* Publisher, date published. Title of Container, web address.

 

Example:

 

 

Gershwin, George. Rhapsody in Blue for Piano and Orchestra. 1924. The Library at www.piano.ru. MusOpen, musopen.org/music/11222-rhapsody-in-blue/.

 

In-text structures:

 

Composer’s Last Name…(measures x-x)

 

(Composer’s Last Name measures x-x)

 

Example:

 

Gershwin…(measures 3-4)

 

(Gershwin measures 3-4)

 

*You can include the original composition date as supplemental information between the title and publisher. It may be helpful to include this information if the piece was composed much earlier than the sheet music you are citing or if the arrangement has significantly changed from the original.


SOCIAL MEDIA EXAMPLES

Notable individuals consistently share pictures, videos, and ideas on social media, which is why social media is often referenced in today’s research papers. If you’re looking to add a reference for Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, or Instagram in your MLA paper, check out the structures and examples below.


Twitter


Full reference structure:

 

 

Last Name, First Name [Username]*. “Full text of tweet.” (If it’s longer than 140 characters, it’s acceptable to only include the first part with three ellipses at the end.) Twitter, date posted, URL.

 

Example:

 

 

 

Eilish, Billie. “Billie’s premiere performance of ‘No Time To Die’ will be at the 2020 #BRITS on 2/18. Billie will be accompanied by @FINNEAS, @HansZimmer, and @Johnny_Marr.” Twitter, 13 Feb. 2020, twitter.com/billieeilish/status/1228109605189742592.

 

In-text structure:

 

Author Last Name….

 

(Author Last Name)

 

Example:

 

Eilish…

 

(Eilish)

 

*When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.

If the tweet is composed of just an image or video, create a description for it and do not place it in quotation marks. For example:

DJ Snake. Video of studio controls with music playing. Twitter, 11 Feb. 2020, twitter.com/djsnake/status/1227267455095123968.

Odds are, you could spend hours scrolling through Twitter to catch up on the latest news and gossip. Why not spend some time scrolling through the EasyBib grammar guides instead? Check out these informative noun and adjective guides to help keep your writing in check!


Facebook


Full reference structure:

 

 

First Name Last Name or Page Name. “Title of Facebook post” or Description of Facebook post if it lacks text or a title or consists entirely of a photo or video. Facebook, date posted, URL.

 

Example:

 

 

 

 

Cabello, Camila. Update to fans after social media break. Facebook, 4 Feb. 2020, www.facebook.com/camilacabello/posts/2939765322713592.

 

In-text structure:

 

Facebook Poster’s Last Name…

 

(Facebook Poster’s Last Name)

 

Example:

 

Cabello…

 

(Cabello)

 

 


Reddit


Full reference structure:

Author’s Last Name, First Name [Reddit username if different than their name]. “Text of Reddit headline.” Reddit, date posted, URL.

Example:

 

 

[u/maupalo]. “How do you feel about professors taking attendance?” Reddit, 21 Feb. 2020, www.reddit.com/r/college/comments/f7ay40/ how_do_you_feel_about_professors_taking_attendance/.

 

In-text structure:

 

Reddit Poster’s Last Name or Username

 

(Reddit Poster’s Last Name or Username)

 

Example:

 

Reddit user u/maupalo…

 

(u/maupalo)

 

 


Instagram


Full reference structure:

 

 

Last Name, First Name [Username if different]. “Text of Instagram caption” or Description if it lacks text and consists of a photo or video without a caption. Instagram, other contributors (if applicable), date posted, URL.

 

Example:

 

 

 

Eilish, Billie. Profile photograph of Billie holding a white microphone with a black background. Instagram, 28 Jan. 2020, www.instagram.com/p/B72dN1gFe7k/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link.

 

In-text structure:

 

Last name…

 

(Last Name)

 

Example:

 

Eilish…

 

(Eilish)

 

Looking for other types of sources, such as government and archival documents? Here’s more info.


 


Next Steps

Now that you’ve figured out how to style your references, the next step is structuring your written work according to this style’s guidelines. The thorough EasyBib MLA format guide provides you with the information you need to structure the font, MLA title page (or MLA cover page), paper margins, spacing, plus more! There’s even a sample MLA paper, too!


Work Cited

MLA Handbook. 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.


Published April 9, 2020. Updated July 25, 2021.

Written by Michele Kirschenbaum. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and is the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com.


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