Reference: MLA: General
General Rules for MLA Format 7th Edition
How is MLA 7 different than MLA 6
- You are no longer required to have URL's in citations. If your instructor wants to include URLs, put them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period.
- Use italics instead of underlining for titles of larger works including books or magazines, and "quotation marks" for titles of shorter works such as poems or articles.
List entries alphabetically by last name.
Works with no authors
If there is no author given, alphabetize the works by the title. Use a shortened version of the title.
To cite an author, use the last name followed by the first name and if given, the middle name of initial.
- Last name, First name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
To cite two authors, use the last name followed by the first name and then inverse to first name and last name.
- Last name, First name and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
If you are citing more than one author, separate the authors by commas alphabetically. The first author should have their last name, first name and the additional authors should be cited simply with their first and last name.
- Last name, First name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Title. City: Publisher, Year.
Contributor information (editor, compilers, and translators) are typically cited after the name of the source. Use "Ed.", "Comp", or "Trans." to indicate what type of contributor you are citing.
- Last name, First name. Source Title. Comp. First name Last name. City: Publisher, Year.
In MLA7, you must list the publication medium (print or web) after the publication information. MLA7 abbreviates all months except for May, June and July.
Book: Last, First M. Title City: Publisher, Year Published. Medium
Journal: Last, First M. "Article." Title Series Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page(s). Medium
Magazine: Last, First M. "Article" Title Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Medium
Newspaper: Last, First M. "Article" Title [City] Date Month Year Published, Edition, Section: Page(s). Medium.
If you cannot find a place, publisher or date - use place holders "N.p., n.p., n.d." which represents no place, no publisher, and no date.
No page number - If there are no page numbers use "N. pag." Capitalize the abbreviations appropriately based on where they are placed.
No place: Last, First M. Source Title N.p.: Publisher, Year. Medium
No publisher: Last, First M. Source Title City: n.p., Year. Print
No date: Last, First M. Source Title City: Publisher, n.d. Print.
Title. Dir. First M. Last. By First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last, First M. Last, and First M. Last. Distributor, Year Published. Media Type.
- Of Mice and Men Dir. Gary Sinise. By John Steinbeck. Perf. John Malkovich, Gary Sinise and Ray Walston. Released by Contemporary Films/McGraw-Hill, 1992. Videocassette.
Artist Last, First M. "Track Name." Recorded Month Date, Year. In Album Name By Writer First M. Last. Cond. Conductor First M. Last. Orch. First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last. Band/Group Name. Rec. Date Month Year. Producer First M. Last, Year. CD/MP3, MIDI, Cassette/Vinyl.
- Lady Gaga Born This Way Rec. 2011. Vincent Herbert, 2011. CD.
(1) Contributors. (2)"Title." (3)Website. (4)Edition. (5) Website Publisher, (6) Date. (7) Web. (8) Date Accessed.
Sources Published Directly Online
Citing an Article from an Online Only Resource
- Friedland, Lois. "Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips." About.com New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
Citing an Entire Website with No Identifiable Electronic Publication Date
- EasyBib.com ImagineEasy Solutions, n.d. Web. 8 May 2009.
Citing an Article from an Online Only News Source
- Chen, Stephanie. "Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison." CNN.com Cable News Network, 7 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Citing an Article from an Online Newspaper
- Shorto, Russell. "Going Dutch." New York Times New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Citing an Online Only Journal
- Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. "Miles that Blind: Commuter Marriage and Family Strength." Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.
Structure: Last name, First name. Page Cited. Web. Date Accessed.
- Smith, Steve. Home Page. Web. 3 January 2013.
Sources Published Indirectly Online Sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these sources as you would in their original form, and then add as much relevant web information as possible (website title, publisher / sponsor, date of electronic publication, medium, and date accessed).
Citing a Book Originally in Print Found Online
- Catton, Bruce. The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. Google Book Search. Web. 15 May 2008.
- Puzzanchera, Charles. "Juvenile Arrests 2007." Juvenile Justice Bulletin. (Apr.2009): n.pag. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 8 May 2009.
Citing a Video Found Online
- West, Kanye. Amazing. Prod. Hype Williams. Roc-A-Fella Records, 2009. Youtube Web. 8 Feb. 2009.
Citing a Painting Viewed Online
- Picasso, Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921. ArtQuotes.net Web. 5 Apr. 2006.
Citing a Musical Recording Listened to Online, With No Discernible Manufacturer or Date
- Park, Obadiah. "Hey Ya." N.d. TheSixtyOne.com Web. 10 Feb. 2007.
Citing a Digital Image Found on Google Images
- Bruce Springsteen. Digital Image. Google Images. LIFE. Web. 9 Oct. 2009. <http://images.google.com>.
Citing an Originally in Print Journal Article Found in a Database
- Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. "Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors for Data Mining." Annals of Operations Research 263.1 (2008): 5-18. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
View our visual citation guide on the Fundamentals of MLA Format.
View our visual citation guide on the Web Rules of MLA Format