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Our MLA Guide to Developing Authentic Works Cited Pages

Welcome to EasyBib.com’s Guide to MLA Works Cited Pages! This guide serves as a one-stop shop for everything you need to know about creating an authentic MLA works cited page.

In this guide, you’ll find information about:

  • What an MLA works cited page is
  • The difference between a bibliography and a reference page
  • How to organize a works cited MLA list
  • How to use EasyBib.com’s MLA works cited generator
  • How to properly display authors’ names in your references
  • Title rules regarding capitalization, italics and quotation marks

Let’s get started with an explanation of what exactly a reference page is and why creating one is necessary.

An MLA works cited page displays the sources which were consulted and included in a project.

When students and scholars create a research paper or another type of project, they seek out information in books, websites, journal articles, and many other types of sources. The information from these sources, combined with the scholar’s own thinking and knowledge, aid in the formation of a final project.

Simply placing information from books, websites, journal articles, newspaper articles, and other source types into a project is not acceptable. It is necessary to share with the reader that the information included from outside sources originated elsewhere. This is easily done in two ways. In the body of a research project, the student or scholar includes a brief glimpse as to who created the information they’ve added. This is called an in-text or parenthetical citation. Here’s an example of one:

Langdon’s expertise is revealed in Chapter 1, when he is introduced to a group of university students. “Our guest tonight needs no introduction. He is the author of numerous books: The Symbology of Secret Sects, The An of the Illuminati, The Lost Language of Ideograms, and when I say he wrote the book on Religious Iconology, I mean that quite literally. Many of you use his textbooks in class” (Brown 8).

In the example above, the writer displays that the quote was taken from Brown’s book, on page 8.

Even though this information is helpful, the brief reference to Brown and page 8 isn’t sufficient enough to provide the reader with enough information to truly understand the origin of the quote. Other relevant Information, such as the full name of the author, the title of the book, the publisher, and the year the book was published is missing. Where can the reader find that information? In the works cited MLA list!

The MLA works cited list is the final page of a research project. Here, the reader can take the time to truly understand the sources included in the body of the project. The reader can turn to the MLA works cited list, look for “Brown” and see the full reference, which looks like this:

Brown, Dan. The DaVinci Code. Knopf Doubleday, 2003.

Included in the above reference is the full name of the author (Dan Brown), the title of the source (The DaVinci Code), the publisher of the book (Knopf Doubleday), and the year the book was published (2003).

The information provided in the reference supplies the reader with enough information to seek out the original source themselves, if he or she would like.

There are many ways to style references, but for this guide, we’re specifically focusing on an MLA reference page. MLA stands for Modern Language Association. They are the creators of the MLA format, which is a commonly used style to create references. Many literature and language courses use MLA style, but due to its popularity, numerous other subject areas and disciplines use it as well. This guide follows the guidelines in their current edition, which is the 8th edition.

This guide is not affiliated with the Modern Language Association. It was developed by EasyBib.com’s in house librarians to serve as a quick guide and snapshot of some of the guidelines found in the MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition.

Click here for an MLA works cited guide by The University of York, which contains information about structuring both types of references (in-text and full references).

If you’re asking yourself, “How does the MLA style of citation work?” here’s some additional information.

 

Bibliography vs. Works Cited – What’s the Difference?

Quite often, the two terms are used interchangeably. While similar, they have some unique differences.

A bibliography is a list of sources that relate to the content in a research paper or project. You can find examples of bibliographies in the final pages of some nonfiction books. Authors sometimes include a list of sources for further or additional reading. This additional reading list is a bibliography.

A reference page is a list of sources that are included in the body of a research paper or project. When a quote or piece of information is added into a project, the writer includes the in-text citation or parenthetical citation (as described in the section above) and the in-text citation correlates with the full reference, found on the reference page.

If you’re looking to style your references in a different style, click here for more styles.

Another commonly used reference style is APA. If your teacher or professor requests your references be made in APA style, check out this page on APA format.

Here’s more information on how to develop an MLA in-text citation.

The remainder of this guide focuses on the placement, organization, and styling guidelines for the MLA works cited list.

Location

The reference page is the final page of a research paper and starts on its very own page.

If your project isn’t an actual research paper, but a slideshow, video, or another type of project, follow the same guidelines as above. Place the works cited list on the final slide, page, or screen of the project.

Formatting Instructions

This next section displays the recommended guidelines for margins, spacing, and page numbers.

Margins:

Place one inch margins around the entire document. The only exception is the “running head.” See the “Running Head” section below to learn more about the margins of this component.

Most word processing programs automatically default to one inch margins. In the page setup settings, you can view and modify the size of the margins.

Spacing:

Double space the entire page. The title, references, and other components should all have double spaces.

It is not necessary to create double spaces manually by pressing the “enter” or “return” key in between each and every line. Your word processing program can automatically adjust the line spacing for you. Look for a section in the settings area called “Line spacing” or “Paragraph spacing.” You should be able to click or check off “double spacing.”

Page numbers:

The reference list is the final page(s) of a research paper. If the conclusion of a research project is on page 7, page 8 would be the first page of the reference list. If the list runs onto the next page after that, it would be page 9.

For more information regarding how to display the page numbers, see the section below titled, “Running Head.”

Labeling

This next section focuses on how to properly label and format the page numbers and title.

Running Head

The running head is found at the top of every page of the research project. It’s also included on the reference list. The running head displays the name of the writer or author of the research project as well as the page number. There is one space between the author’s name and the page number.

Here is an MLA works cited page example of a running head:

Kleinman 8

 

The above is an example of a running head that would be seen on page 8 of a research project. The writer’s last name is Kleinman.

The running head is placed in the top right corner of every page. It sits half of an inch from the top of the page and along the right side’s one inch margin.

Reminder: If the concluding sentence of the research project is on page 10, the reference list starts on page 11. Even though the reference page starts on its own page, the numbering throughout the entire project includes the reference page.

Title

The next item below the running head is the title of the page, which should either be “Work Cited” or “Works Cited.” If only one reference is included on the page, the title of the page should be “Work Cited.” If there are multiple references, title the page as “Works Cited.”

Whether you’re making an MLA work cited page or an MLA works cited page, the title should be aligned in the center of the document, one inch below the top edge of the paper.

Here’s a sample MLA works cited running head and title:

Kleinman 8

 

Works Cited

Do not place the title of the page in bold letters or italics, and do not underline it. The letters should be the same size and style as the rest of the document (12 point font). Place a double space below the title and the first citation on the page.

Creating the Entries

The full citation entries run along the left side of the paper, along the one inch margin.

Each MLA work cited entry has a hanging indent, meaning the first line of the full reference starts along the one inch margin and any additional lines after the first are indented in one and a half inches from the left margin.

Here is a work cited MLA example of a hanging indent:

Bartolotti, James, and Viorica Marian. “Bilinguals’ Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language.” Language Learning, vol. 67, no. 1, 2016, pp. 110-140. Wiley Online Library, doi.org/10.1111/lang.12200.

 

Double space each line.

References are generally organized in alphabetical order by the first item in the reference, which is quite often the last name of an author. There are exceptions. See the section below titled, “Organizing the Entries” for more information.

If you need further assistance with learning how to cite work in MLA, here’s an informative site.

Developing References on EasyBib.com

EasyBib.com has an MLA works cited generator, which helps you produce references . This means you don’t have to spend time determining how to structure and organize the components of a citation.

To create your complete page of works cited in MLA with our tools, head to EasyBib.com’s homepage.

If your teacher or professor requests your references be made in MLA format, choose either MLA 7 or MLA 8. The 7th edition was replaced by the 8th edition in April 2016. While some schools and programs still use the 7th edition, most have adopted the new rules and guidelines of the 8th edition. If you’re not sure which edition to use, ask your teacher or your school’s librarian for assistance.

After choosing either MLA 7 or MLA 8, the next step involves selecting the source you’re attempting to cite. If the source you’d like to create a reference for is a book, choose “Book” from the drop down menu. If you’re attempting to cite a website, choose “Website” from the drop down menu. There are close to 60 source types listed in the drop down menu, so you have many options to choose from!

Depending on the source type you choose, EasyBib.com will either direct you to a new form, or you’ll stay on EasyBib.com’s homepage, where you can enter information to the right of the source type. Whichever screen you land on—the form or the homepage—follow the steps on the screen to complete your reference.

After following the steps on the screen, your reference will be created. You can copy and paste the reference into your word processor. You can also export it too, if you wish. All references can be exported to Microsoft Word Documents, Google Docs, Dropbox, or One Drive. There’s even an option to email the reference! Thanks to EasyBib.com’s intuitive design and functionality, you have the ability to export the completed citation to many different platforms.

EasyBib.com not only helps you to develop the structure for each individual citation, but also arranges all references in their proper order.

Looking for a different MLA works cited website or general research help? Check out others, which are featured in an article about the style in the news.

Organizing the Entries

This next section provides instructions to help you organize your references. There are two options: alphabetical order and non alphabetical order.

Alphabetical order

The majority of references are organized in alphabetical order by the first item in the reference, which is usually an author’s last name. When a source doesn’t have an author, the title is placed first in the reference. Many films and movies, for instance, begin with the title, since no author is present.

Either way, whether the reference starts with the last name of the author, or a title, the entries are placed in alphabetical order.

Here’s a works cited MLA example, organized in alphabetical order.

Benjamin, Chloe. The Immortalists. Penguin, 2018.

Black Panther. Directed by Ryan Coogler, performance by Chadwick Boseman, Marvel Studios, 2018.

Egan, Jennifer. Manhattan Beach. Scribner, 2017.

Non-Alphabetical Order

The majority of reference lists are organized in alphabetical order. However, it is acceptable to only organize “annotated bibliographies” in alphabetical order, chronological order, or subject order. Here’s more information about the organization and creation of an MLA annotated bibliography.

Here’s more on how to do an MLA works cited page.

Author Names

If you need help structuring or formatting the author’s name (or multiple authors’ names) in your references, this section will help.

Let’s start with the proper structure for one author’s name. If the source you’re attempting to cite was created by one individual author, structure the name as follows:

Last name, First name.

The last name of the author is placed at the start of the reference, followed by a comma, and the first name of the author. Conclude this information with a period.

Here are a few examples illustrating how to structure an author’s name with a middle name or middle initial:

Burroughs, William S.

Yeats, W. B.

Alcott, Louisa May.

Wondering how to organizing two or more works by Louisa May Alcott in your paper? It may be tricky to determine how to alphabetically arrange the references, since each MLA work cited entry begins with Louisa May Alcott.

To create a proper MLA works cited list when there are multiple sources by the same author, place the references in alphabetical order by the title. Only include the author’s name in the first reference. In place of the author’s name, place three dashes, followed by a comma.

Below is a visual representation of a properly organized and structured MLA style works cited list. All three sources in this MLA works cited page example are by the author, Louisa May Alcott.

Alcott, Louisa May. “Eight Cousins.” Project Gutenberg, 2018, www.gutenberg.org/files/2726/2726-h/2726-h.htm.

– – -, Little Women. Bantam Classics, 1983.

– – -, Rose in Bloom. CreateSpace, 2018.

In need of an MLA work cited website to help create your MLA work cited page? Check out EasyBib.com!

Two Authors

The first listed author’s name on the source is the first author seen in the reference. The second listed author’s name on the source is the second author placed in the reference.

The first author’s name is placed in reverse order, followed by a comma and the word “and.” The second author’s name is listed in standard order, followed by a period.

Last name, First name of Author 1, and First name Last name of Author 2.

Here are a few examples for a works cited page in MLA:

Brust, Steven, and Emma Bull.

Jory, John, and Mac Barnett.

When there are multiple sources on a reference list by the same co-authors, organize those specific references alphabetically by the titles. Only include the names of the coauthors in the first entry.

Jory, John, and Mac Barnett. The Terrible Two. Amulet, 2017.

– – -, The Terrible Two Get Worse. Amulet, 2017.

There may be times when you’re attempting to add additional sources by one of the co-authors, or the lead co-author along with a different individual.

Here is an example of how a works cited page in MLA would be organized. Included is a source solely written by one of the coauthors (John Jory) and a source by John Jory with a different coauthor, Avery Monsen.

Jory, John. The Bad Seed. HarperCollins, 2017.

– – -, Giraffe Problems. Random House, 2018.

Jory, John, and Mac Barnett. The Terrible Two. Amulet, 2017.

– – -, The Terrible Two Get Worse. Amulet, 2017.

Monsen, Avery, and Jory John. All My Friends Are Dead, Chronicle, 2010.

Jory John’s work, The Bad Seed, is listed first in the reference list since the single author’s name is organized first in alphabetical order. The second entry includes the three hyphens and a comma in place of John Jory’s name since it is redundant to write out and display the author’s name again in the list. Entries three and four are by the coauthors Jory John and Mac Barnett. The hyphens in the fourth source replace the authors’ names in the third for the same reason as above; it’s unnecessary to write out both co-authors’ names twice. The Terrible Two book is placed before The Terrible Two Get Worse as the titles are placed in alphabetical order. The fifth entry is by John Jory and Avery Monsen. Monsen’s name is displayed first on the source, which is why her name is listed first in the entry. Remember: authors are placed in the order they appear on the source.

Three or More Authors

When there are three or more authors listed on a source, it is unnecessary to include all individuals’ names in the reference list. Only include the first listed author’s last name, followed by a comma and their first name, followed by another comma and the abbreviation “et al.”

Et al. is an abbreviation used in academic works. It translates to “and others” in Latin. Replace the second, third, and any additional authors’ names with “et al” on your work cited page in MLA.

Here is how the author position would be filled for a source with multiple authors:

Robertson, Judy, et al.

The above example represents a journal article written by Judy Robertson, Beth Cross, Hamish Mcleod, and Peter Wiemer-Hastings. Instead of including all four authors’ names in the entry, only the first listed author’s name is included. Here is how the full MLA works cited website entry would look on the page:

Robertson, Judy, et al. “Children’s Interactions with Animated Agents in an Intelligent Tutoring System.” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 14, no. 3-4, 2004, pp. 335-357. IOS Press, content.iospress.com/articles/international-journal-of-artificial-intelligence-in-education/jai14-3-4-05.

If including an additional reference by Judy Robertson, but with different co-authors, include her name again in the reference list.

For example, take a look at this journal article by Judy Robertson, Judith Good, and Helen Pain. The MLA work cited entry would begin with Judy Robertson, et al. and not three hyphens since there are different co-authors than the first. Here is how the reference list for both MLA works cited website journal articles would be organized:

Robertson, Judy, et al. “BetterBlether: The Design and Evaluation of a Discussion Tool for Education.” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 1998, pp. 9, 219-236, ijaied.org/pub/1026/file/1026_paper.pdf.

Robertson, Judy, et al. “Children’s Interactions with Animated Agents in an Intelligent Tutoring System.” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 14, no. 3-4, 2004, pp. 335-357. IOS Press, content.iospress.com/articles/international-journal-of-artificial-intelligence-in-education/jai14-3-4-05.

The entries are listed in alphabetical order by the title of the source since the first positions are the same.

If you’re still questioning how to do a works cited page in MLA, learn more here. Here’s additional information on creating an .

Authors with Proper Titles

There are times when an author is graced with a prestigious title such as a Duke, Sir, Saint, and others.

When an author has a specific title, it should be omitted from the body of a project and also omitted from the reference list.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle should be in the project as Arthur Conan Doyle.

On a work cited page in MLA, it would be displayed as:

Doyle, Arthur Conan.

Authors with Suffixes

If an author has a suffix in his or her name, such as Junior (Jr.) or a roman numeral such as II, III, IV, or V, this information is included in the reference list. The individual’s name is placed in reverse order, with the last name displayed in the first position. Immediately following the last name is a comma, followed by the first name and middle name. After the first and middle names, a comma is placed, and the suffix of the individual is placed at the end.

Here are a few examples to illustrate how suffixes are structured:

Cal Ripken Jr. would be structured as:

Ripken, Cal, Jr.

Frederick William III would be structured as:

William, Frederick, III.

Pen Names

If the author’s pen name is one that is well known, it is acceptable to use the pen name in place of the author’s real first and last name. For example, Mark Twain, Dr. Seuss, George Orwell, and O. Henry are all acceptable to use in a works cited MLA section, as their pen names are well known.

If the author’s pen name is less familiar, place the author’s real name in parentheses in the reference.

Here is an MLA works cited example to illustrate how lesser known pen names are structured:

Coffey, Brian. (Dean Koontz). Blood Risk. Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.

Van Dyne, Edith. (L. Frank Baum). Aunt Jane’s Nieces At Work. 1st World Library, 2006.

Names in Other Languages

Many names in languages other than English include conventions and features that are different than names in English. This next section provides information to help you properly structure and organize the names of authors in other languages.

French

French names often include the particles de, d’, or du. Some examples include Valery Giscard d’Estaing, Bertrand du Guesclin, and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord.

When “de” is used in an individual’s name, it is separated from the last name. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord would be structured in a work cited MLA list as:

Talleyrand-Perigord, Charles Maurice de.

If, however, the last name is only one syllable, “de” is considered part of the last name. The reference entry would begin with de and then the last name of the individual, followed by a comma and the first name.

When “du” or “dus” is used in an individual’s name, it is included as part of the last name. Capitalize the “d” in “du.” Bertrand du Guesclin would be structured in a work cited MLA list as:

Du Guesclin, Bertrand.

When d’ is placed before a last name, d’ is included as part of the last name, but only when the last name begins with a vowel. Valery Giscard d’Estaing would be structured as:

d’Estaing, Valery Giscard.

Asian

Prior to determining how to structure an Asian author’s name, consider the source. Many Asian publishers display the author’s last name first on sources. If the source was published in Asia, do not reverse the author’s name in the reference list. Write it in the order shown on the source, without any commas. End the author’s name with a period.

If the source was published in English, it is quite possible that the author’s last name is displayed first as well. This is when the researcher must do a bit of detective work to determine the author’s first name and last name. Run the name through a search engine and identify the author’s first name and last name. If the last name is placed first on the source, keep it as is in the reference entry. Do not reverse the names and write it in standard form.

If, on the source, the author’s name is placed in standard order (first name followed by last name) reverse it in the reference list. Begin the reference with the last name of the individual, add a comma, and add the first name of the author. End the field with a period.

Latin

Famous historical figures in Roman history have names that are widely known. Some examples include Julius Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Constantine, and others. While these individuals are known by their Roman names, their full names are in Latin.

Begin the reference entry with the Roman name. Immediately following the Roman name, add the individual’s full name in parentheses. End the information with a period.

Here is an MLA works cited website example:

Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus). “The Deeds of the Divine Augustus.” The Internet Classics Archive, translated by Thomas Bushnell, 1998, classics.mit.edu/Augustus/deeds.html.

German

Two commonly used particles in German names are “von” and “zu.” Examples include Alexander von Humboldt, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, and Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied.

When a German individual’s name includes the particles “von” or “zu,” the particles are not included as part of the person’s last name. Ferdinand von Zeppelin would be organized in the work cited MLA list as:

Zeppelin, Ferdinand von.

If, on the source, von is displayed as a last name, it is acceptable to include it at the beginning of the individual’s last name. Examples include books by Dita Von Teese and Diane Von Furstenberg.

Here is an MLA works cited example:

Von Furstenberg, Diane. Diane: A Signature Life. Simon & Schuster, 2009.

Italian

If the particles d’, del, de, della, di, da, are used in an individual’s last name, and the individual is relatively current and from modern times, the particles are included as part of the last name and the reference entry begins with the particle.

When the individual’s name begins with one of the same particles above, but he or she is from historical or ancient times, the particle is not included as part of the individual’s last name.

Di Lampedusa, Giuseppe Tomasi.

Spanish

There are two commonly used particles in Spanish names: “de” and “del.” If an individual’s name includes the particle, “de,” do not include it as part of his or her last name. When “del” is visible in an individual’s last name, the “d” in “del” is capitalized and placed at the beginning of the citation.

Del Toro, Benicio.

Leon, Juan Ponce de.

Soto, Hernando de.

Del Rio, Andres Manuel.

Titles

Capitalization

Titles should be written in title case format. This means that the first letter in the first word, the first letter in the last word, and the first letters of all important words are capitalized. Any coordinating conjunctions (and, for, but, or, so, nor, and yet), articles (a, an, the), and prepositions in the title are not capitalized.

Here are a few MLA works cited examples of how titles should appear in references:

A Tree Grows in Brooklyn

The Wizard of Oz

Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

 

If the source you’re attempting to cite is in a language other than English, it is recommended to use “sentence case” form. Sentence case only has the first letter in the first word capitalized and the first letter in any proper nouns capitalized. All other words are written in lowercase letters.

Don’t forget to use EasyBib.com’s MLA work cited generator to develop your works cited page in MLA.

Italics vs. Quotation Marks

Whether the source is placed in italics or quotation marks depends on where the source was found. If the title stands alone, place the title in italics. If the title was found in a container, such as a website, anthology, edited book, or another type of container, place the source in quotation marks and the container in italics.

Mather, Victor. “Japan Advances in World Cup 2018 Despite Losing to Poland.” New York Times, 28 June 2018, nyti.ms/2IzyUdm.

Salinger, J. D. The Catcher in the Rye. Little Brown, 1991.

Titles Beginning with Numbers

Titles beginning with numbers are placed in the reference list in alphabetical order, as if the title was written out alphabetically.

Here’s an MLA works cited example: The movie 2 Fast 2 Furious, would be organized in alphabetical order as if it said “Too Fast Too Furious.” The citation would still be begin with the number even though it is organized alphabetically.

Don’t forget to try EasyBib.com’s MLA works cited generator to help you develop your references and your MLA works cited page. Our MLA works cited generator is free and simple to use!

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