Authors should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
If you want to cite multiple articles by the same author, list entries in chronological order from earliest to most recent.
If there is no author given, begin your citation with the name of the primary source/article.
Global Warming. (2006). San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
When citing authors, use the last name followed by the first initial and middle initial (if given).
Last, F. M.
If you are citing more than one author, separate the authors by commas alphabetically. The first author should have their last name, first name and the additional authors should be cited simply with their first and last name.
Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., Last, F. M., et al.
If there are more than six authors, cite the first six and then write “et al.”
Dickens, C. & Bellow, S.
Write the organization as the author
New York State Association of Counties. (2009).
Sometimes the main contributor is not an author, but another contributor type, such as an editor or conductor. Follow the contributor by an abbreviation of the contributor type (i.e. Ed. or Cond.).
Smith, J. K. (Ed.). (Date). Title.
Smith, J. K. (Cond). (Date). Title.
Note: If plural, then change the abbreviation accordingly.
Smith, J. K., & Sampson, T. (Eds.). (Date). Title.
APA 6 recommends to only cite the homepage URL, and only the exact URL if the page is not properly indexed or easy to find from the homepage. For blog posts, user contributed content, and discussion forums, APA 6 recommends including the exact URL.
APA 6 recommends including it only if the source material may change over time. Also keep in mind that you can use “Available from” instead of “Retrieved from” when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material rather than to the material itself.
If an article has a digital object identifier (DOI) number, you need only the DOI number, and no URL or retrieval date.
Freidland, L. (2008, September 22). Top 10 natural and wildlife adventure travel trips. Retrieved from http://adventuretravel.about.com.
EasyBib.com. (n.d.). Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.easybib.com
Chen, S. (2009, May 7). Growing up is hard with mom in prison. CNN. Retrieved http://www.cnn.com
Shorto, R. (2009, April 29). Going Dutch. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
When citing online sources in APA, generally follow the same structure of its in print equivalent, and then follow this information with the date of access and the URL.
Glotzer, R., & Federlein, A. (2007). Miles that bind: Commuter marriage and family strength. Michigan Family Review, 12, 7-31. Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/textidx?c=mfr;cc=mfr;q1=Miles%20that%20Bind;rgn=main;view=text;idno=4919087.0012.102
The above example has a poorly indexed URL and the material may change over time. Hence the URL is included.
Oakley, R. (2004). How the mind hurts and heals the body.American Psychologist, 12(1), 25-47. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.29
Eckel, B. (n.d.). Thinking in Java (3rd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.bruceeckel.com
Artist Last, First M. “Track Name.” Recorded Month Date, Year. In Album Name By Writer First M. Last. Cond. Conductor First M. Last. Orch. First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last. Band/Group Name. Rec. Date Month Year. Producer First M. Last, Year. CD/MP3, MIDI, Cassette/Vinyl.
Lady Gaga Born This Way Rec. 2011. Vincent Herbert, 2011. CD
Contributors. “Title.” Website. Edition. Website Publisher, Date. Web. Date Accessed.
Friedland, Lois. “Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips.” About.com New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
EasyBib.com ImagineEasy Solutions, n.d. Web. 8 May 2009.
Chen, Stephanie. “Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison.” CNN.com Cable News Network, 7 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Shorto, Russell. “Going Dutch.” New York Times New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. “Miles that Blind: Commuter Marriage and Family Strength.” Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.
Last name, First name. Page Cited. Web. Date Accessed.
Smith, Steve. Home Page. Web. 3 January 2013.
As opposed to some sources published directly online (by a website), other sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these sources as you would in their original form, and then add the relevant web information (date accessed and URL).
Catton, B. (2005). The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://www.books.google.com
Puzzanchera, C. (2009, April). Juvenile arrests 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov.
West, K. (2009). Amazing [Online Video]. Roc-A-Fella Records. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=at4OQvNlxSw
Because this is from a website with user generated content, the exact URL is included, instead of the homepage.
Picasso, P. (1921). Three musicians [Painting found in Museum of Modern Art, New York]. Retrieved from http://www.artquotes.net
Schonfled, E. (2009, September 13). Shutterfly buys Tiny Pictures for a tiny price. TechCrunch. Retrieved from http://www.techcrunch.com
Because blog posts are informally published, do not italicize the article titles.
Ahn, H., & Kim, K. (2008). Using genetic algorithms to optimize nearest neighbors for data mining. Annals of Operations Research, 263(1), 5-18. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.
Sources found in online Databases typically have been published elsewhere. Include as much as the original publication information as possible.
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View our visual citation guide on how to cite a General in APA format.