How to do APA footnotes
Published October 28, 2020. Updated September 13, 2021.
Footnotes are a way for the author to provide additional content to their papers without distracting the reader from the text. They can be content based, providing a little more insight on an idea you raise in the text, or they can be used to provide copyright attribution for long quotes and passages.
Properly formatted APA footnotes can be placed at the bottom of the page. Alternatively, you can put them on their own page after the references. Either way, it’s important to know how to use footnotes properly.
In this guide, students can learn about the different uses for footnotes as well as how to format footnotes according to APA Style. All of the information here comes straight from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual.
How to use footnotes
There are two primary reasons why an author would use footnotes:
Using a footnote for content
As mentioned above, there are a few different ways to use footnotes. The more common way is when an author wants to provide extra insight on an idea without disrupting the flow of the text. This is called a content footnote.
Using a footnote for copyright attribution
When you are reproducing a portion of a copyrighted work, like an extended passage from a book or journal, it is necessary to provide copyright attribution. This can be done inside a footnote.
If it is an image or graph you are reproducing, copyright attribution can go in the figure note or table note.
Endnotes vs. footnotes: What’s the difference?
According to APA Style, the author may choose to place the footnotes on the bottom of the page on which the callout appears or at the end of the paper on their own page(s).
“Endnotes” is a function on many word processors that insert callouts and place the notes at the end of the document. While this is the same idea as footnotes, APA calls for a specially-formatted footnotes page.
To place the footnotes at the end of your document, check the preferences of the footnote function. You should be able to select “End of Document” instead of “End of Page.”
How to format APA footnotes
Always use the footnotes function of your word processor to insert footnotes. This will make it much easier to keep track of everything even as page content changes.
How to format footnotes correctly:
- Always use the footnotes function.
- The callout should be in superscript, like this.1
- The callout should come after the punctuation, like this.2
- If there’s a dash3—the callout comes before the punctuation, not after.
- All callouts should appear in numerical order, like this.4
APA footnotes example
Now let’s have a look at what properly formatted APA footnotes look like in action.
Here is an example of a concise, relevant, and properly formatted footnote from “The role of renewable energy in the global economy transformation”, published in Energy Strategy Reviews.
… A transition away from fossil fuels to low-carbon solutions will play an essential role, as energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent two-thirds of all greenhouse gases (GHG).1
1This data refers to the situation in 2010 and it includes emissions from industrial processes. Emissions from the latter are released during the physical and chemical transformation of materials like clinker production. Since these industrial production processes are also consumers of energy, here we made the choice to combine them with CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion.
In this example, the footnotes function automatically created a dividing line at the bottom of the document. It has also reduced the font size by 1pt, which is neither required nor discouraged by APA.
The reason this is a good example, however, is because the footnote provides supplemental information that is both relevant and substantive. The information would have been too distracting to appear in the main text, but it provides helpful insight on the author’s research method.
Published October 28, 2020.
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- Can I include more than one footnote on the same page in APA style?
You can include more than one footnote on the same page in APA style. There is no restriction on the number of footnotes to be included on a page. Depending upon the number of footnotes on the page, the text area of the page will be automatically adjusted to fit the footnotes.
- What is a footnote in APA style?
Footnotes in APA are used to provide the reader some additional information about the idea or the element being discussed. Footnotes are used in all types of publications such as journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers.
Two types of footnotes are used in APA style: content footnotes and copyright attribution footnotes. A content footnote provides additional explanation or information about something mentioned in the text, while a copyright attribution footnote provides copyright information for lengthy content that has been reprinted in the text. For both types, the in-text citation remains the same. Remember the following guidelines when you want to cite a footnote:
- Footnotes (whether content footnotes or copyright attribution footnotes) are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.
- Use superscript Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) to designate a footnote callout.
- Insert the footnote callout after the punctuation mark. A few examples for your reference are listed below:
- This is a footnote.1
- In this footnote,2 the author tries to clarify the idea.
- If you use a dash, set the footnote callout before the dash:
- A footnote callout—unlike in-text reference citation3—is simple to add.
- You should not add space before the footnote callout.
- If you want to refer to the same footnote again in the text, do not add any superscript Arabic numeral. Instead, write “see Footnote 3.” In this case, the footnote description need not be given again.
Note that a footnote should have only one idea. If you want to add more information, it is advisable to add the content in the text or create an appendix.