How to Cite an Interview in APA

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Published August 10, 2012. Updated September 11, 2021.


Citing an Interview

APA reference lists only include works that can be found by the reader. As a personal interview is not published or “findable,” it should not be included in an APA reference list. Instead, a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation.

For example:

(J. Smith, personal communication, May 17, 2008).

Any personal interview conducted via the following (and that are unpublished) can be considered “personal communication”:

  • in-person interview
  • email
  • phone interview
  • text messages
  • online chats
  • memos
  • unrecorded lectures

If you would like to include a personal interview as part of your APA reference list, then include the interviewee, the date of the interview, and the type of interview.

Interview Citation Structure:

Last name, F. (Year, Month date). Personal communication [Communication type].

Interview Citation Example:

Cloyd, A. (2014, July 29). Personal interview [Personal interview].


Video overview

Citing a published interview

If an interview is published, cite the source as you would normally. If the interview is published as YouTube video, use the APA format for citing a video. If it was an interview in a printed book, use APA format for citing a book.
Within the reference list entry, you do not need to indicate who the interviewee is. However, in the writing around your in-text citations, make sure that you mention who the interviewee was. Include the location of where the quote came from, e.g., page number (p. 22), paragraph number (para. 12), timestamp (1:42), etc.

Interview published as an online article

In-text citation, parenthetical example:
“You forget they have a disability and it’s not until you take a step back and you talk to them… that you realise the stories they have,” said Ellie Simmonds about the Paralympics (MacInnes, 2021, para.1).
In-text citation, narrative example:
MacInees (2021) interview with Paralympic athlete Ellie Simmonds revealed that the gold medalist feels more pressure now that she’s older.
Reference list entry example:

MacInnes, P. (2021, August 24). Ellie Simmonds: ‘I’ve found the expectations harder as I’ve got older.’ The Guardian.

Interview published as YouTube video

In-text citation, parenthetical example:

When asked how tall he is, Igor Vovkovinsky replied that he is “7 feet and 8.33 inches tall” (60 Minutes Australia, 2018, 0:57).
In-text citation, narrative example:
When Conan O’brien (2021) interviewed comedian Tig Notaro, she joked that she was in a sequel to the movie Army of the Dead.

Reference list entry examples:

60 Minutes Australia. (2018, June 23). Meet the tallest man in the world | 60 Minutes Australia [Video]. YouTube.

O’Brien, C. [Team Coco]. (2021, June 11). Tig Notaro full interview – CONAN on TBS [Video]. YouTube.




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How do I cite an online interview in APA style?

To cite an online interview, you need to know what format the interview is in. Was it an online video? An online article? A podcast? Whatever the medium (video, article, podcast, etc.), create a citation as you would normally for that medium.  The author is usually the interviewer’s (or publishing company’s) name.

In-text citation template and examples:

When citing information from an interview, make it clear who the interviewee (the person being interviewed) was. If you are citing a quote, include the location of where the quote came from. That could be a page number (p. 22), paragraph number (para. 12), or timestamp (1:42).

Here is an example of a video interview on YouTube.


Author Surname or Organization (Publication Year)

Manufacturing Intellect (2020) published a video of Romney Wheeler interviewing Bertrand Russell.


(Author Surname, Publication Year)

In one interview with Romeny Wheely, the philosopher Bertrand Russell said, “I wanted to know whether there is any truth in realities known, and I thought if there was any, it’s probably in mathematics” (Manufacturing Intellect, 2020, 8:58-9:05).

Reference list entry template and example:

Author Name. (Date published). Title of the video [Format]. Video Site Name. URL

Manufacturing Intellect. (2020, July 10). A conversation with Bertrand Russell [Video]. YouTube. (Original work broadcast in 1952)

How do I do an in-text citation for an interview in APA?

An interview is a talk or an exchange of information via electronic media. An interview can be published or unpublished, depending upon the type and nature of the interview. Interviews can be any of the following types:

  • Published interview
  • Personal interview
  • Interview of participants in a study

Published interview

Interviews appearing in newspapers, magazines, television programs, YouTube videos, podcasts, and radio broadcasting will fall under this category. Here is a template and an example of how a published interview is cited in the text:


(Author Last Name, date of interview)


(Fuller, 2018)

Personal interview

If you get details through emails or phone calls to make the statement in your paper effective, you need to cite them as “personal communication,” since they cannot be published. A few examples of interviews that need to be treated as personal communications include:

  • in-person interview
  • interview on the telephone
  • text messages or emails
  • online chats


(Author Last Name, personal communication, date of interview)


(Sethusankar, personal communication, December 2, 2016)

Interview of participants in a study

If you interview your participants as a part of your study, APA style doesn’t require you to cite them. However, follow the APA guidelines on how to present the interview of participants.