How to Cite a Special Contributor in APA, MLA or Chicago

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Illustrators and other contributors in MLA format

If the illustrator is not the primary contributor, you can add the illustrator information after the title. Precede the illustrator information with the abbreviation Illus. which stands for “Illustrated by.”

Example with one illustrator:

Smith, John. Title. Illus. Jane Smith

Example with two illustrators:

Smith, John. Title. Illus. Jane Smith and Payton Manning.

If you are referring to the illustrator as the primary contributor, then you may add this information before the title.


Smith, John, illus. Title.

Cite other contributors in a similar fashion.

If citing a composer:

Smith, John, comp. Title.

If the composer is a secondary contributor:

Smith, John. Title. Comp. Payton Manning.



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