Web Rules


Chicago provides citation formats for many different source types found on the web such as online newspapers, encyclopedias and blogs.

You should first identify the unique citation structure for the electronic source you are using.

For example, do not use EasyBib’s website form to cite an electronic journal article. Instead, use the journal form and select the “online” or “online database” tab.

Some tips to keep in mind:

        Journal article

  • Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end of the citation.
  • Ensure that “DOI” is lowercase, then add a colon, a space, the DOI number and a period
  • e.g., doi: 10.1177/0013161X12471832
  • If no DOI is available use a stable URL
    • A DOI is preferred over a URL.
    • Ideally, use a shortened, stable URL (permalink) of the article or abstract. If no stable URL is available, use the full web address instead.
    • See Section 14.184 of the CMoS for full details.

    General Websites

  • Typically, websites should only be referred to in your in-text citations (footnotes/endnotes). However, if your instructor requires a bibliography citation, format it as follows:

    Last name, First name (or Corporation). “Article Title.” Accessed Month Date, Year. URL.

    If you are referencing a website whose content changes over time, such a wikis, use the following format:

    Last name, First name (or Corporation). “Article Title.” Last modified Month Date, Year. URL.

    For more information, see Section 14.245 of the CMoS, or https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.[/vc_toggle][vc_toggle title=”Formatting URLs” open=”false”]If a URL runs across multiple lines of text in a citation, break it after the two slashes of the protocol (https://) or before any other punctuation (slashes, dashes, periods, etc.).

    Examples of citations for a/an:

    General website article with one author

    Limer Eric. “Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Gizmodo. October 1, 2013. Accessed February18, 2014. https://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597.

    General website article with no author

    India: Country Specific Information.” Bureau of Consular Affairs: U.S. Passports & International Travel. October 23, 2013. Last modified February 10, 2014. https://travel.state.gov/content/passports/english/country/india.html.

    *Note: This citation includes the “last modified” date as its content can change over time.

    Online newspaper article

    Kaplan, Karen. “Flu Shots May Reduce Risk of Heart Attacks, Strokes and Even Death.” Los Angeles Times, October 22, 2013. Accessed February 11, 2014. https://articles .latimes.com/2013/oct/22/science/la-sci-sn-flu-shot-heart-attack-stroke-death-20131022.https://travel.state.gov/content/passports/english/country/india.html.

    *Note: Newspapers are typically cited in notes or in-text citations and *not* in a bibliography. If they are referenced in the text, leave them out of the bibliography. However, if your instructor requires a newspaper citation in the bibliography, follow this structure.

    Journal article (found in a database or elsewhere online)

    Trier, James. “‘Cool’ Engagements with YouTube: Part 2.” Media Literacy 50, no. 7 (2007). doi:10.1598/JAAL.50.7.8.


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