How to Cite an Interview in Chicago/Turabian
If you are conducting research for a paper or project, interviews can be a great way to get information and quotes directly from the source, whether you are conducting the interview yourself or citing a published interview. This guide will show you how to cite both published and unpublished interviews in notes-bibliography style using the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
- Cite a published interview
- Cite an unpublished interview
- Cite an unattributed or anonymous interview
- Cite personal communications
- What you need
How to Cite a Published Interview
If you are citing an interview published in a periodical (i.e., magazine, newspaper, or journal) or on TV/radio you should follow the citation structure for that type of source. The below example follows the magazine citation structure since the interview was published in a magazine. For more information, see these guides on how to cite a journal, how to cite a magazine, how to cite a newspaper, and how to cite a TV/radio broadcast.
1. Interviewee First name Last name, “Interview Title,” interview by Interviewer First name Last name, Publication or Channel/Show Name, Month day, year, URL (if online) or page number (if in print).
Interviewee Last name, First name. “Interview Title.” By Interviewer First name Last name. Publication or Channel/Show Name, Month day, year. URL (if online).
1. Michelle Obama, “Oprah Talks to Michelle Obama,” interview by Oprah Winfrey, O, The Oprah Magazine, April 1, 2009, 27.
Obama, Michelle. “Oprah Talks to Michelle Obama.” By Oprah Winfrey. O, The Oprah Magazine, April 1, 2009.
Note: If this example were accessed online, the note and bibliography would be formatted as follows:
1. Michelle Obama, “Oprah Talks to Michelle Obama,” interview by Oprah Winfrey, O, The Oprah Magazine, April 1, 2009, https://www.oprah.com/omagazine/michelle-obamas-oprah-interview-o-magazine-cover-with-obama.
Obama, Michelle. “Oprah Talks to Michelle Obama.” By Oprah Winfrey. O, The Oprah Magazine, April 1, 2009. https://www.oprah.com/omagazine/michelle-obamas-oprah-interview-o-magazine-cover-with-obama.
A Note on Direct Quotations
A direct quote from an interview should be treated like a direct quote from any other type of source. However, when using a direct quote from a published interview, be sure to include quotation marks both for the quoted material (the interview) as well as any internal quotation marks from the interviewee’s statements (if applicable). Any quoted material within your quote, should be shown in single quotation marks. For example, a direct quote from an interview might be written in your paper as follows:
They also discussed books in the interview. “I asked the First Lady for a recommendation, and she said ‘I love reading nonfiction.'”1
If an interview is presented as a dialogue between the interviewee and interviewer, however, the quoted information can be included in regular quotation marks:
When discussing books, the First Lady stated, “I love reading nonfiction.”1
How to Cite an Unpublished Interview
Unpublished interviews are normally only cited in the text or in notes, but if you include an unpublished interview in your bibliography, the citation should include the name of the interviewee, the interviewer, some identifying information if necessary or appropriate, the place and date of the interview, and where a transcript or recording is available (if it is).
1. First name Last name of interviewee (title/identifying information if needed), interviewed by First name Last name, Month day, year of interview, transcript (if applicable), transcript location, City, State (if applicable).
Last name, First name of interviewee (title/identifying information if needed). Interviewed by First name Last name, Month day, year of interview. Transcript (if applicable), transcript location, City, State (if applicable).
1. Emily Gover (Information Literacy Librarian, EasyBib.com), interviewed by Allison Cloyd, July 2014, transcript, EasyBib Archives, New York, NY.
Gover, Emily (Information Literacy Librarian, EasyBib.com). Interviewed by Allison Cloyd, July 2014. Transcript, EasyBib Archives, New York City, New York.
How to Cite an Unattributed or Anonymous Interview
Unattributed or anonymous interviews should only be cited in the notes and do not require a bibliography entry. It is a good idea to provide some context within the text regarding the absence of the interviewee name (e.g., “names are withheld to protect the privacy of the interviewees”).
1. Interview with interviewee description, Month day, year of interview.
1. Interview with North High School student, January 28, 2022.
How to Cite Personal Communications
If you want to cite information you received directly from another person, but a full interview wasn’t conducted, you can cite that information as personal communications. Like unattributed or anonymous interviews, personal communications can be cited within the text or in the notes, but it is not necessary to create a bibliography entry.
1. Contact First Name Last name, message type to author, Month day, year of correspondence.
1. John Doe, email message to author, January 28, 2022.
What You Need
While the exact information you need to cite an interview will vary depending on whether it is published, and if so, where it is published, you will generally need the following:
- Interviewee name
- Title of interview
- Interviewer name
- Publication or channel/TV show name
- Date of interview
- Page numbers if applicable
- URL or other location information if applicable
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