Fundamentals of Chicago Citation


Generally, Chicago/Turabian citations require:

  • Author
  • Title of book/article
  • Title of newspaper/journal
  • Publication year
  • Publication month and date
  • Publisher
  • City of publication
  • Date of access
  • Page numbers
  • URL or DOI (for some online sources)

What to Document/Cite

  • Direct quotations
  • Paraphrases and summaries
  • Information and ideas that are not common knowledge, or are not available in a common reference work
  • Any information that you have borrowed, or anything that could be interpreted as your own if not cited

Contributor Information and Titles

Section 14.72 of The Chicago Manual of Style details author formatting for both footnotes and reference pages.

One author:

Last, First M.

Two authors:

Last, First M., and First M. Last.

More than 10 authors:

List the first seven authors, followed by et al.


Authors who use initials in their first names (e.g., J.K. Rowling, C.S. Lewis), add a space between their initials.


Salinger, J. D. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston: Little, Brown, 1951.

For works with an editor/translator/compiler and no author, list the contributor’s name, followed by ed./eds., comp./comps. or trans. after the contributor(s) last name(s), preceded by a comma.

One editor:

Last, First M., ed.

Two authors:

Last, First M., and First M. Last, trans.

For works with authors and additional contributors – such as an article in an edited anthology – list the author’s name first. After the article title, list the additional contributor names, preceded by Edited by, Compiled by, Translated by or Ed., Comp., or Trans.

If a work has an editor and a translator, list them in the same order as they appear on the title page.

Anonymous Works

If the author is unknown, begin the citation with the title.

The Book with No Name. London: Omnibus Press, 1981.


Organizing Your Bibliography

Arrange citations entries in a reference list alphabetically by the author’s last name.

Chan, Danny.

Gover, Emily.

Kalita, Rahul.

Parekh, Rajul.

Selleck, Anne C.


Multiple works by different authors with the same last name should be alphabetized by the authors’ first initials.

Brontë, Charlotte.

Brontë, Emily.

If a work is authored by a group or corporation, it should be listed as an author and alphabetized by the first word in the group’s name.

Alberto, Alexandra.

Association of National Advertisers.

Doublet, Katherine.

Ikemoto, Wendy.

Capitalization Rules

Capitalization in Chicago style follows standard “headline capitalization” rules.


  • The first and last word of article or publication titles
  • All major words, including:
    • Nouns
    • Pronouns
    • Adjectives
    • Verbs

For more information on capitalization and titling, see section 14.93 of The Chicago Manual of Style.


Some Notes About Notes

Here are some tips about the use of footnotes/endnotes in Chicago/Turabian:

  • Footnotes come at the bottom of each page, separated from the text with a line. Some instructors prefer that you use endnotes, which are included on a separate page (titled “Notes”) at the end of your paper.
  • To acknowledge a source in your paper, place a superscript number (raised slightly and smaller font size) immediately after the end punctuation of a sentence containing a quotation or reference. Do not put any additional punctuation after the number.
  • In the footnote or endnote itself, use the same number as your in-text reference.
  • If a single paragraph of your paper contains multiple references to the same source, it is fine to create a single footnote/endnote entry.
  • Most word processing programs, such as Microsoft Word, offer options to automate creating footnotes/endnotes.
  • Check with your instructor before completing your paper to confirm which note style option they prefer you use.

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