Thesis Research

Created by Beth on October 05, 2009

  Alexander, Christopher. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1964. Print.
  Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford UP, 1977. Print.
  "The Benefits of BuildingSMART." HOK | Ideas Work. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2009. <>. This is HOK’s white paper explaining their incorporation of BIM and IPD into their daily processes. This will serve as a good case study once I get a bit farther into my research.
  Binnekamp, Ruud, L. A. Van Gunsteren, Peter-Paul Van Loon, and Peter Barendse. Open Design: A Stakeholder-Oriented Approach in Architecture, Urban Planning, and Project Management. Amsterdam: IOS, 2006. Print. Available on Google books. Expert design versus Open Design - Expert design has a group of architects dictating the design where the stakeholders do not give input. Open Design gives equal weight to both sets of opinions. It's about synthesis, not compromise.
  Design Processes. Proc. of Industrial Design Engineering Meets Architecture, Delft, The Netherlands. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS, 2008. Print. The most applicable papers in the conference proceedings are annotated below. Many of the papers included in these conference proceedings have been extremely helpful. Design Processes - This paper discusses the importance of having a design theory and how it helps to develop new tools for design. It defines the role of design methods and gives some structure to the design process. This will help me to identify a core process. It also discussed the difference between the traditional problem solving process and the more accurate reflective practice. I believe that designers need to understand their own decision making process before they can identify how they design. Social Complexity - This paper discusses the social context in design collaboration. It lists many different influences on the process including unshared and contradictory goals, cross-disciplinary communication and team mental models. This introduced the idea of team dynamics to my contextual review. I think that these concepts will be critical to my research.
  Dubberly, Hugh. How Do You Design?, A Compendium of Models. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 18 Mar. 2005. Web. 17 May 2010. <>. This is a huge list of processes used in all different types of design: architectural, engineering, software, product, etc. Very helpful.
  Dyer, William G., W. Gibb Dyer, and Jeffrey H. Dyer. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007. Print. The context refers to the organizational context. The larger organization surrounding the team must be supportive and provide the resources necessary. The composition must be well thought out. You need the right people on the team to do the work. The team shouldn’t be too large, or there will be social loafers, or those who do much less work than the others. The competencies of all of the members together must be such that they can manage conflict when it arises, keep themselves on task, and communicate with each other effectively. Change management skills refer to the idea that teams must have the skills needed to change their processes when their overall goals or surroundings change. The higher the interdependence, the more likely a team will be needed to perform the task. There are three levels of interdependence. Starting with the lowest, modular or pooled is when each team member works independently of the others, and their results are pooled into one common end product. Sequential interdependence is when one team member starts the process and the second member cannot complete his task until the first gives him the required information. This is more like a linear process. Reciprocal has the highest level of interdependence. This is when all information is shared and all decisions need to be made by everyone.
  Erlhoff, Michael, and Timothy Marshall, eds. Design Dictionary Perspectives on Design Terminology (Board of International Research in Design). Boston: Birkhäuser Basel, 2008. Print.
  Hackman, J. Richard. Leading Teams, Setting the Stage for Great Performances. New York: Harvard Business School, 2002. Print.
  Heimsath, Clovis. Behavioral Architecture, Toward an Accountable Design Process. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977. Print. This book describes a pragmatic approach to behavioral architecture. There is one particular chapter titled "The Current Design Process" that will help me define the core architectural process. I don't think the rest of the book will have much influence on my project.
  Hippel, Eric Von. Democratizing Innovation. New York: MIT, 2006. Print. Eric von Hippel talks a lot about technology and product evolution. Historically, manufacturers drive new products and innovation, but lead-users are becoming more involved in this evolution process. Manufacturers are starting to take note. He also discusses software evolution by way of open source software. Programmers use the available code to customize software for their use. How does this fit in with my thoughts? Can these evolutionary processes be applied to processes? Also available under Creative Commons license from MIT's website:
  Integrated Project Delivery: A Guide. N.p.: AIA, 2007. Print. IPD is a process that gives architects, owners and contractors help in writing contracts that facilitate an integrated process. This is a really great strategy, but does not address the day to day issue.
  Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. Print.
  Jones, J. Christopher. Design Methods. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992. Print. I have only briefly looked at this book, but it will give me a basic history and introduction to interdisciplinary processes. One section begins to talk about IDR, interdisciplinary problem-focused research, and how to manage these types of tasks. I believe it is a bit peripheral to my research.
  Klein, Julie Thompson. Interdisciplinarity History, Theory, and Practice. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1990. Print. I have only briefly looked at this book, but it will give me a basic history and introduction to interdisciplinary processes. One section begins to talk about IDR, interdisciplinary problem-focused research, and how to manage these types of tasks. I believe it is a bit peripheral to my research.
  Koberg, Don, and Jim Bagnall. The Universal Traveler, a Soft-Systems Guide to Creativity, Problem-Solving & the Process of Reaching Goals. Menlo Park, Calif: Crisp Publications, 1991. Print. The Universal Traveler is a practical book on creative problem solving. I think that at the core of every designer is a creative problem solver (or problem finder). This, as an introduction or how-to guide to creative problem solving will help me to break down the design process to its most basic roots.
  LaBarre, Suzanne. "The New Tools." Metropolis Nov. 2009: 50+. Print. This article is a good case study for using IPD, BIM, and environmentally sustainable goals in a collaborative project. It says that the time line can be significantly shorter when using IPD vs design-bid-build and construction manager project delivery processes. This is a really great piece of information promoting my idea that working collaboratively with appropriate processes in response to new strategies can save time and money.
  LaFasto, Frank M. J., and Carl Larson. When Teams Work Best 6,000 Team Members and Leaders Tell What It Takes to Succeed. Minneapolis: Sage Publications, 2001. Print.
  Lawson, Bryan. How Designers Think the Design Process Demystified. Oxford: Architectural, 1997. Print. The beginning of this book takes the time to deconstruct and accurately define the design process. I need to do this so that I can define the core design process before looking for alternative processes. This book also discusses finding vs. solving problems. Part of my hypothesis is that designers are not problem solvers, but problem finders. The book goes on to describe design principles, tactics, and strategies. It will be good to compare these strategies with strategies that I find through interviews with professionals. - Lean Enterprise Institute| Lean Production | Lean Manufacturing | LEI | Lean Services |. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>. Lean is a business practice pioneered by Toyota. It involves reducing waste in every part of your business. It encourages companies to evaluate every process in relation to their customer and to eliminate processes that do not fit. I am not sure if this is a process that will help architectural firms or if it is a service that they provide (helping clients Lean their businesses). I am getting a book to further educate myself on the processes.
  Lencioni, Patrick M. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, A Leadership Fable. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002. Print.
  Lewis, Kemper E., Wei Chen, and Linda C. Schmidt, eds. Decision Making in Engineering Design. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2006. Print. This book speaks very technically about the Decision Based Design. It says that decisions are based on 1) human values 2) uncertainty and 3) risk. It also talks about the process of Decision Theory. That process is identify options and choices, develop expectations, and develop a system of values that rate the choices leading to a selection.
  Moser, Cliff, AIA, MSQA. "Using RFIs to Caluclate External Failure Costs." AIA Practice Management Digest (Winter 2009): n. pag. Web. 7 Mar. 2011. Moser discusses RFIs and documents the traditional AIA project phases.
  Shoshkes, Ellen. The Design Process. New York, NY: Whitney Library of Design, 1989. Print.
  Varney, Glenn H. Building Productive Teams: An Action Guide and Resource Book. N.p.: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated, 1989. Print.
  Womack, James P. Lean Thinking, Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation. New York: Free, 2003. Print.
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