Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines
Your teacher may want you to format your paper using Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the Chicago/Turabian guidelines as well.
- Use 1-inch margins
- The text should be flush left and double-spaced
- There should be no extra lines between paragraphs
- Indent the first line of each paragraph one-half inch
- Use italics when required. Do not replace with underlining
- CMS strongly encourages the use of the serial comma, which is when a comma is placed between the next to last item in a list of three or more items and the word and
- Example: We discussed the weather, our families, and our pets.
- Proper nouns are always capitalized
- Titles of works should usually be capitalized using headline style capitalization
- Capitalize all major words in the title/subtitle
- Do NOT capitalize a, an, or the unless they are the first word in a sentence
- Never capitalize and, but, for, or, to, or as
The Author-Date System:
1.The author-date system uses parenthetical references in the text, and contains the author’s last name and the publication date of the work. These references correspond to an entry in a reference list at the end of the paper.
2. The reference list can be titled “Reference List” or “Works Cited.” Check with your teacher to see if they prefer one or the other.
3.Reference list entries should be double-spaced and flushed left.
4.The reference list entry contains full publication information, with the year following the author’s name. Include the information that you think would help the reader find the source you have referenced. Organize the sources in the bibliography in alphabetical order by author last name. If your source does not have an author, list the source in the alphabetical list starting with its title.
Reference List Example:
Whitehead, Colson. 2016. The Underground Railroad. New York: Doubleday-Penguin Random House LLC.
The Notes-Bibliography System:
1.The Notes-Bibliography system provides citation information using either footnotes or endnotes which correspond to an entry in a bibliography at the end of the paper.
2.In the footnote or endnote, the elements are separated by commas. Publication information is in parentheses, and the author’s name is given first name, then last name. The footnote number in the text is superscript, and should appear at the end of the sentence with the referenced information, following the punctuation mark.
3.The bibliography is simply titled “Bibliography”, and comes as a separate page or pages at the end of your paper. In the bibliography, the elements are separated by separated by periods, and the publication information is NOT in parentheses. The author’s name is displayed with the last name first, then the first name.
4.Organize the sources in the bibliography in alphabetical order by author last name. If your source does not have an author, list the source in the alphabetical list starting with its title.
1. Colson Whitehead, The Underground Railroad (New York: Doubleday-Penguin Random House LLC, 2016), 124.
Whitehead, Colson. The Underground Railroad. New York: Doubleday-Penguin Random House LLC, 2016.