Forum Replies Created
2 weeks, 3 days ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
A: The strongest papers are the ones that don’t rely on simply restated information from other sources. As a writer, you should always strive to reach your own conclusions, and create an original work based on the information from scholarly materials while making sure that the ideas in your paper are original and your own.
Unless a source expresses an idea in particularly relevant language, it is nearly always best to paraphrase the idea and cite the author. Remember, citations are required whenever you use information from another source, even when you paraphrase.in reply to: Q: Is it better to paraphrase or directly quote?1 month, 3 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
A: The exact formatting of website citations for sites without an author depends on which citation style you are using, but the general rules are the same. For example, it is usually preferable to list the title of the webpage article first if no author is available.
Here is how you would cite a webpage without an author in 3 of the most popular citation styles: APA, MLA 8, and Chicago.
Title of webpage/article. (Year, Month Date of publication). Retrieved from URL
India: Country specific information. (2013, October 3). Retrieved from http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1139.html
“Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL.
“Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts
“Article Title.” Website Title. Publication/Updated Month Date, Year OR Accessed Month Date. URL.
“Heck Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Finally Here.” Gizmodo. Updated October 1, 2013. http://gizmodo.com/heck-yes-the-first-free-wireless-plan-is-finally-here-1429566597
For more citation help, visit the EasyBib Writing Center!in reply to: Q: How Do I Cite a Webpage with No Author?2 months, 1 week ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
A: What you include in your cover page depends slightly on which citation style you are using, but the rules are generally the same.
For APA cover pages:
Include the title of the paper, running head, the author’s name, institutional affiliation, and an author’s note.
Here is an example of a cover page in APA:
For MLA cover pages:
Cover pages are not as frequently used in MLA format, as the inclusion of headers is preferred.
A header looks like this:
Cover pages can include the name of your school, your paper title, your name, your course name, your teacher or professor’s name, and the due date of the paper. If you are unsure of what to include, check with your instructor.
Here is an example of a cover page in MLA format:
For more help making cover or title pages, visit our title page generator here.3 months, 2 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
The MLA 8 handbook stresses the importance of “containers” in citations. You should think of containers as the item or location that holds the source you are citing. It is important to cite both of these pieces of information in your citation.
Here are a few common examples of containers:
– Books are the container for book chapters.
– Websites are the container for webpages.
– Scholarly journals are the container for journal articles.
– Albums are the container for songs.
Citations with one container look like this:
Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S.-Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific, edited by Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-125.
In this citation, the book, Militarized Currents, is the container for the chapter, “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent.”
Sometimes an item you are citing may have more than one container. An example of this would be an episode of a tv show, in a TV series, watched online. In this case, both the TV series and the website are containers.
Here is how you would cite the source from before if it had more than one container:
Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S.-Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific, edited by Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010. Google Books, http://www.googlebooks.com/militarized-currents.
In this case, the book, Militarized Currents, and the website, Google Books, are containers.
To learn more about containers in MLA 8 format, check out our infographic here.in reply to: Q: Can you explain what “containers” are in MLA 8?4 months, 1 week ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
If you are citing a book cover, or part of a book cover, make sure to keep in mind that you are still citing a book.
These examples are in MLA 8 format
For Book Cover Art
I would recommend looking at the publication information for some of this info, and include as much as possible:
Artist’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Artwork if available. Date Artwork Created, Title of Book, Author or Editor Name, Publisher, year, front cover.
For Book Cover Text
If you are citing descriptive copy or a quotation printed on the cover of a book, it’s preferable to incorporate the necessary details (chiefly, the author of the copy or quotation you are citing, if known, and the source where the copy or quotation appears) into the body of your text and then create a standard entry for the book in your works-cited list.
If you do not include all the necessary details in the body of your text, the in-text citations and works-cited-list entries might appear as follows:
Cover copy.The Sympathizer, by Viet Thanh Nguyen, Grove Press, 2015.
Kingston, Maxine Hong. Cover endorsement.The Sympathizer, by Viet Thanh Nguyen, Grove Press, 2015.
If the quotation is from a review of the work, you should ideally obtain the review and cite the publication in which it appeared in your works-cited list, but if you need to cite it from the book cover, your entry might read as follows:
Caputo, Philip. Review excerpt on book cover. The Sympathizer, by Viet Thanh Nguyen, Grove Press, 2015.in reply to: Q: How Do I Cite a Book Cover or Cover Copy?4 months, 3 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
When you are writing a research paper, keep in mind that YOU will forever be listed as its author. It is very important, therefore, that your own ideas make up the majority of the paper’s content. A good rule of thumb is to attribute no more than one-third of your paper to outside sources.
Remember, the whole point of a research paper is to learn your own unique views on a topic. Don’t be afraid to be original!5 months, 2 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
Paraphrasing is the act of taking information and re-writing or re-creating it in your own words. It is a tricky art to master when writing papers. If done correctly, it can improve your writing style and make your work seem much more professional to your reader. If done incorrectly, it can harm the integrity of your paper. Below is my favorite technique for how to paraphrase a source while minimizing the chances of accidental plagiarism. This method can apply to papers using any citation style, including MLA, APA, and Chicago.
The process involves following these four steps:
1) Read the information from your chosen source thoroughly, and take your time You want to gain an understanding of the material and its key concepts.
2) After reading the source and establishing what the key concepts in it are, put the source away or remove it from your sight for at least 10 minutes. This is the most important step.
3) Then, start writing notes on what you gleaned from the source and how it fits in with your paper topic. Use these notes to re-create the concept(s) in your own words.
4) Look at the source again and compare it to what you have written down. Your version of the concept should be in your words using your own vocabulary. If you feel that your words appear too similar to the original source, then you should revise.
Please note that even if you paraphrase from a source, you should always include proper citations at the end of your paper.in reply to: Q: How Can I Paraphrase a Source in My Paper?5 months, 2 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
Here is how you would do this in APA style:
Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget’s theory. In K. Richardson (Ed.) Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703-732, by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York: Wiley)
In the text include both publication years: (Piaget, 1970/1988).
If you don’t have the original publication information, you can just use the year of the book. (See above.)
This information can be found in the Publication Manual of the APA 7.02, page 26.5 months, 3 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
What is important here is that you make it clear to your reader that you are not citing the book itself, but still stressing its importance. Depending on what citation style you are using, such as MLA or APA, you either underline or italicize the book title contained within the article title. So for example, if the article you are citing is called: “Why Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is the best book in the Harry Potter series,” you would instead write: “Why Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is the best book in the Harry Potter series.”
For more info on formatting rules for citation styles, visit our guides listed below:5 months, 3 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
This is a question that plagues many student writers. While citations are an important part of your work, they should not be included haphazardly. After all, their purpose is to inform your reader of where you found information, not to confuse or distract them.
First, I would consult your assignment instructions from your teacher. If no guidelines about the number of citations are given, I suggest that no more than five percent of your citations consist of direct quotes. Instead, think about how a work fits in to your own unique point of view, and reference it with signal phrases or paraphrasing (which you still need to cite!)
Remember, you must always include citations immediately following direct quotes, and be sure to include all of the sources you used in your works cited page or bibliography.in reply to: Q: How Many Citations Should I Include in My Paper?6 months ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
In an increasingly digital world, social media platforms have become one of the most popular sources students turn to when writing a research paper. Below are some examples of how to cite a tweet in 3 citation styles: MLA 8, APA, and Chicago/Turabian.
MLA 8th ed.
@TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://).
@Britannica. “Nelson Mandela, who fought for racial equality and became South Africa’s 1st black president, was born #OTD in 1918.” Twitter, 18 Jul. 2017, 11:45 a.m.,twitter.com/Britannica/status/887382776747630594.
APA 6th ed.
Last name, F. [Twitter handle]. (Year, Month Day). Content of tweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from URL.
Encyclopedia Britannica. [Britannica]. (2017, July 18). Nelson Mandela, who fought for racial equality and became South Africa’s 1st black president, was born #OTD in 1918. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/Britannica/status/887382776747630594.
Chicago 16th ed.
First name Last name, Twitter post, Month Day, Year, Time, URL.
Encyclopedia Britannica, Twitter post, July 18, 2017, 11:45 a.m.,https://twitter.com/Britannica/status/887382776747630594.in reply to: Q: How Do I Cite a Tweet?6 months, 2 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
There are a few simple rules to help with this:
Within a single article
If you are citing two separate sections of a single article, cite the entire article in your bibliography and then refer to the specific pages in correctly formatted parenthetical references in the body of your paper.
Within a single source
If you are citing two articles or sections within a single source (book, journal, etc.), cite both articles/sections individually in your bibliography.
Within a website
If you are citing two separate pages from a single Web site, provide individual entries in your bibliography for both sources.
For more info and style specific tips, please see our citation guides:6 months, 2 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
A: MLA has recommended parenthetical documentation instead of footnotes since the late 1980s. Parenthetical references in conjunction with a works cited list are not only the most common citation formatting styles, but together also form a clear method of citing your sources. See our MLA and APA guides on parenthetical citations for more info.
While most instructors that ask you to use MLA or APA prefer parenthetical citations, some may request that you use endnotes or footnotes instead. Please note that the MLA Handbook: Eighth Edition does not recommend using footnotes or endnotes. If your teacher prefers APA style, see pages 37-38 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for details.
For tips on how to correctly format your citations in both MLA and APA, check out our guides below.6 months, 4 weeks ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
A: Always check with your professor if you are unsure of which citation style you should use for your assignment. Often, this information can be found in your class syllabus, or within the assignment prompt itself.
If your professor allows you to choose your own citation style, you should try to choose one that is frequently used and well documented, such as MLA, APA, or Chicago/Turabian.
You should also consider that certain citation styles are used more often in certain areas of study. To find one that applies to your subject area, please see the list below:
ACS (American Chemical Society) Chemistry Bluebook Law Review Legal Studies AMA (American Medical Association) Medical Sciences AMS (American Mathematical Society) Mathematics AP (Associated Press) Journalism, Public Relations APA (American Psychological Association) Psychology, Business, Economics, Education, Social Sciences Chicago Manual of Style Humanities, History, Religion, Social Sciences CSE (Council of Science Editors) Biology Harvard Business School Business MLA (Modern Language Association) Humanities, Literature, English Turabian History, Humanities, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences
For more help citing your sources, check out our guides!in reply to: Q: Which Citation Style Should I Use?7 months, 1 week ago Elise BarbeauKeymaster
To cite a TV show or movie you watched on a streaming service, follow the guidelines below. Remember, the key to making good citations is to give credit to the right people/organization. You can apply these formulas to any TV or movie content you watch on any streaming service, including Netflix, Google Play, Hulu, Amazon Prime, etc.
When citing a specific episode:
“Grief Counseling.” The Office, season 3, episode 4, NBC, 12 Oct. 2006. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/798356483?
When citing an entire TV series:
Daniels, Greg and Roger Nygard, creators. The Office. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2006. Netflix, http://www.netflix.com/watch/798356483?
Films or Movies
Films should be listed alphabetically by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director’s name.
Beauty and the Beast. Directed by Bill Condon, performances by Emma Watson, Dan Stevens, Luke Evans, and Josh Gad, Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 2017. Netflix, http://www.netflix.com/watch/798356483?
*These examples are in MLA 8 format.